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Meanings of Verb Forms (continued)

Triliteral Roots

 

Form IX

 

Form IX of Arabic Verbs

(Active Voice)

Stative

 

(He) was/became color/bodily defect

'if"all(a)

intr.

اِفْعَلََّ

This form has limited uses. It has a stative meaning (see this page for description of the stative meaning). However, the use of this structure is limited to roots denoting colors or bodily characteristics (mostly defects).

Stative

(He) was/became color/bodily defect

 

Examples, colors:

Form IX

Color

'ihmarr(a)

اِحْمَرَّ

'ahmar(u)

أَحْمَرُ

(he) was/became red(der)

a red (masc., adj.)

'ikhdarr(a)

اِخْضَرَّ

'akhdar(u)

أَخْضَرُ

(he) was/became green(er)

a green (masc., adj.)

'iswadd(a)

اِسْوَدَّ

'aswad(u)

أَسْوَدُ

(he) was/became black(er)

a black (masc., adj.)

Note: adjectives denoting colors or bodily defects usually take the structure 'af"al(u) and are forbidden to noonation.

 

Examples, bodily defects:

Form IX

Bodily Defect

'i"warr(a)

اِعْوَرَّ

'a"war(u)

أَعْوَرُ

(he) was/became one-eyed

a one-eyed (masc., adj.)

'i"rajj(a)

اِعْرَجَّ

'a"raj(u)

أَعْرَجُ

(he) was/became lame

a lame (masc., adj.)

'i"wajj(a)

اِعْوَجَّ

'a"waj(u)

أَعْوَجُ

(he) was/became crooked

a crooked (masc., adj.)

 

The meaning "(he) was/has been something" is archaic; these verb most often mean "(he) became/has become something."

 

Meanings of Form IX

Stative

Color

(he) was/became color

Bodily defect

(he) was/became bodily defect

 

 

Form X

 

Form X of Arabic Verbs

(Active Voice)

Causative

 

(He) made do

'istaf"al(a)

tr./intr.

اِسْتَفْعَلَ

Reflexive Causative

 

(He) made himself do

Causative to do the self

 

(He) made do him

This is the final one of the important verb forms. This form contains two affixes, a causative -s- and a reflexive -t-, thus it is called the St-Stem or the Ct-Stem.

This form equals form VIII plus a causative affix -s-. Let's work out the resultant meanings:

Form VIII had two meanings:

 (He) did himself

(He) made himself do

The -s- affix equals a word "make," let's add one to the first meaning. There are two possibilities:

Causative to do the self

(He) made do himself

Reflexive Causative

(He) made himself do

 

Now we'll add a "make" to the second meaning of form VIII. The possibility that concern us is:

Causative

(He) made himself make do

(He) made do

emphatic of the subject's role in initiating & maintaining the causative action

 

Thus, form X has three basic meanings.

 

1) Causative

The first meaning we're going to talk about is the simple causative. The presence of the  -t- affix makes this meaning a bit different here from the causative structures we talked about before, because here it means literally "(he) made himself make do" rather than just "(he) made do." This is called in Arabic تَكَلُّفٌ which means literally "self-charging" or "self-assigning a task" (It also figuratively means "feigning," a factitious reflexive meaning).

The causative meaning of form X imparts a bigger role of the subject in causing the action, or simply it imparts effort. This translates to several figurative meanings like, for example, the meaning of arrangement and request; like in "I had the man work for me," or "he had the guest stay for dinner."

Example:

عَمِلَ الرَّجُلُ

"amil(a) ('a)r-rajul(u)

= worked the man

Translation: the man worked

Form IV:

أَعْمَلَ الرَّجُلَ

'a"mal(a) ('a)r-rajul(a)

= (he) made work the man

Translation: he made/had the man work

he made the man a worker

Form X:

اِسْتَعْمَلَ الرَّجُلَ

'ista"mal(a) ('a)r-rajul(a)

= (he) made work the man

Translation: he had the man work

he arranged for the man to work

The last verb indicated more effort by the subject in causing the action (the man working).

N.B. this was a classical example. The verb 'ista"mal(a) means in modern Arabic "(he) used" like in "he used a tissue paper."

 

Another example:

بَقِيَ الرَّجُلُ

baqiy(a) ('a)r-rajul(u)

= stayed the man

Translation: the man stayed

 

Form IV:

أَبْقَىْ الرَّجُلَ

'abqaa ('a)r-rajul(a)

= (he) made stay the man

Translation: he made/had the man stay

he kept the man

 

Form X:

اِسْتَبْقَىْ الرَّجُلَ

'istabqaa ('a)r-rajul(a)

= (he) made stay the man

Translation: he had the man stay

he asked the man to stay

 

More examples:

Form X

Form I

'istaktab(a)

اِسْتَكْتَبَ

katab(a)

كَتَبَ

(he) (effortfully) made write

→ (he) had/asked to write

(he) wrote

'istakhraj(a)

اِسْتَخْرَجَ

kharaj(a)

خَرَجَ

(he) (effortfully) made come out

→ (he) extracted

(he) went/came out

'istakthar(a)

اِسْتَكْثَرَ

kathur(a)

كَثُرَ

(he) (effortfully) made plentiful

→ (he) sought to increase

(he) was/became plentiful

'istanfar(a)

اِسْتَنْفَرَ

nafar(a)

نَفَرَ

(he) (effortfully) made head to battle

→ (he) called up, mobilized (people) for battle/war

→ (he) encouraged (people) to head to battle/war

(he) ran from/to

(he) headed to battle/war

 

The causative meaning can be, as usual, transformative. However, this meaning here will not usually be literal. It will be factitious, and it will have a sincere motive behind it. The factitious transformative meaning here will mean "(he) thought to be."

Transformative

(He) made himself make noun

(He) thought/believed to be noun

Examples:

Form X

Form I

'istahsan(a)

اِسْتَحْسَنَ

hasan(un)

حَسَنٌ

(he) made be nice

→ (he) thought to be nice

a nice (masc.)

'ista"zam(a)

اِسْتَعْظَمَ

"aazeem(un)

عَظِيْمٌ

(he) made be great

→ (he) thought to be great

a great (masc.)

'istakthar(a)

اِسْتَكْثَرَ

katheer(un)

كَثِيْرٌ

(he) made be many/much

→ (he) thought to be many/much

plentiful (masc.)

'istakthab(a)

اِسْتَكْذَبَ

kaathib(un)

كَاْذِبٌ

(he) made be lying/liar

→ (he) thought to be lying/liar

a lying/liar (masc.)

'istarbaa

اِسْتَغْبَىْ

rabiyy(un)

غَبِيٌّ

(he) made be stupid

→ (he) thought to be stupid

a stupid (masc.)

 

2) Reflexive Causative

 

Reflexive Causative

(He) made himself do

This meaning is similar to the reflexive causative meaning of form VIII. There will also be the reflexive conative meaning "(he) sought to do himself."

Examples, all the form X verbs are intransitive:

Form X

Form I

'istahza'(a)

اِسْتَهْزَأَ

haza'(a)

هَزَأَ

(he) made himself deride

→ (he) derided

(he) derided (intr.)

'istaqaam(a)

اِسْتَقَاْمَ

qaam(a)

قَاْمَ

(he) made himself straight

→ (he) straightened (intr.)

(he) stood up, erected (intr.)

(he) straightened (intr.)

'istaqarr(a)

اِسْتَقَرَّ

qarr(a)

قَرَّ

(he) made himself stay

→ (he) dwelled

(he) became cold

(he) stayed still

'ista"add(a)

اِسْتَعَدَّ

"add(a)

عَدَّ

(he) made himself count

→ (he) prepared

(he) counted

'istahtar(a)

اِسْتَهْتَرَ

hatar(a)

هَتَرَ

(he) made himself rip

→ (he) was reckless, irresponsible

(he) ripped, tore

'istanfar(a)

اِسْتَنْفَرَ

nafar(a)

نَفَرَ

(he) made himself run

→ (he) became mobilized

(he) ran from/to

(he) headed to battle/war

'istalham(a)

اِسْتَلْهَمَ

lahim(a)

لَهِمَ

(he) made himself be inspired

→ (he) was inspired (tr.)

(he) swallowed

(he) became inspired

'ista"lam(a)

اِسْتَعْلَمَ

"alim(a)

عَلِمَ

(he) made himself know

{(he) sought to know}

→ (he) inquired

(he) knew

'istaslam(a)

اِسْتَسْلَمَ

salim(a)

سَلِمَ

(he) made himself safe

{(he) sought to be safe}

→ (he) surrendered

(he) was safe

'istakbar(a)

اِسْتَكْبَرَ

kabur(a)

كَبُرَ

(he) made himself big(ger)

{(he) sought to be big(ger)}

→ (he) was haughty

(he) was/became big(ger)

 

Examples on the reflexive transformative meaning:

Reflexive Transformative

(He) made himself be noun

 

Form X

Form I

'ista"rab(a)

اِسْتَعْرَبَ

"arab(un)

عَرَبٌ

→ (he) became Arab-like (intr.)

Arabs (masc.)

'istahjar(a)

اِسْتَحْجَرَ

hajar(un)

حَجَرٌ

→ (he) became stone-like (intr.)

a stone, stones (masc.)

'ista'<sad(a)

اِسْتَأْسَدَ

'asad(un)

أَسَدٌ

→ (he) became lion-like

a lion (masc.)

'istaklab(a)

اِسْتَكْلَبَ

kalb(un)

كَلَبٌ

→ (he) became dog-like

a dog (masc.)

 

3) Causative to do the Self

This meaning is very similar to the factitious reflexive meaning "(he) sought to do himself" (the so-called by me "reflexive conative"). I am not sure if I should separate the two, but I did because verbs that carry this meaning are transitive, contrary to the reflexive conative.

Causative to do the self

 

(He) made (the object) do himself (=the subject)

(He) sought to be done by (the object)

These verbs usually carry the meaning of seeking or request.

Examples:

Form X

Form I

'istarfar(a)

اِسْتَغْفَرَ

rafar(a)

غَفَرَ

(he) made (someone) forgive him

{(he) sought to be forgiven by}

→ (he) sought forgiveness from

(he) forgave, pardoned

'istansar(a)

اِسْتَنْصَرَ

nasar(a)

نَصَرَ

(he) made (someone) support him

{(he) sought to be supported by}

→ (he) sought support from

(he) rendered victorious

→ (he) supported

'ista'>than(a)

اِسْتَأْذَنَ

'athin(a)

أَذِنَ

(he) made (someone) allow him

{(he) sought to be allowed by}

→ (he) sought permission from

(he) permitted, allowed (intr.)

'istakhdam(a)

اِسْتَخْدَمَ

khadam(a)

خَدَمَ

(he) made (someone/something) serve him

{(he) sought to be served by}

→ (he) hired a servant

→ (he) used

(he) served

 

Basic Meanings of Form X

Causative

to do

Simple

(he) made do

Reflexive

(he) made himself do

to be noun (Transformative)

Simple

Factitious

(he) thought to be noun

Reflexive

(he) made himself be noun

to do the self

(he) made (the object) do him

 

Connotative Meanings of Form X

Arrangement/Request

(he) had/asked to do

(He) sought to be done by

Reflexive Conative

(he) sought to do himself

 

 

Affixes

Now that we have covered all the major verb forms, here is a list of the meanings of the verbal affixes:

Affix Meaning

s-

(→ h- → '-)

"make"

Causative

t-

"he-himself"

Reflexive

indicates great action by the subject and often develops into a reflexive causative

n-

"himself"

Reflexive

indicates minimal action by the subject and often develops into an agentless passive

 

 

 

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