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ARABIC ONLINE

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Imperative

 

The imperative mood in Arabic is used to command a second person, whether singular, dual or plural. This mode is different from the other imperfective moods in that we will have to carve a new structure for it. This structure will be similar to the jussive mood, especially in terms of irregular verbs.

There is no imperative mood in the past tense, as we mentioned already, there is only one fixed mood in the past tense. The imperative verbs, as imperfective verbs, will denote both the present and the future tenses.

In Arabic grammar, imperative verbs are considered a third category of verbs in addition to the perfective and the imperfective. The imperative verbs are "built" verbs since they do not undergo 'i"raab or mood inflection.

Creating the imperative verb فِعْلُ الأًمْرِ structure from the perfective one is similar to creating the imperfective. The major steps in forming the imperfective were (1) adding the prefix  y?- in front of the verb and the suitable suffix to its end, (2) changing the green short vowel, and (3) removing the hamza(t) in front of the verb if existed.

Forming the imperative, for the most part, will be only by implementing step 2 and adding the suitable suffix. That is, to get the imperative structure, we will change the green short vowel in the perfective structure in an identical manner to what would be done when forming the imperfective. We will also add the suitable imperfective suffix.

Excluding the three structures of فَعلَ , we can now form the imperative for all the perfective structures based on what has been mentioned.

Example:

Imperative

الأًمْر

You do!

Perfective

المَاْضِيْ

(He) did

Sing. masc.

'af"il

أَفْعِلْ

'af"al(a)

أَفْعَلَ

Sing. fem.

'af"ilee

أَفْعِلِيْ

Dual

'af"ilaa

أَفْعِلا

Plu. masc.

'af"iloo

أَفْعِلُوْا

Plu. fem.

'af"ilna

أَفْعِلْنَ

 

The three structures of فَعلَ, however, will require additional changes. For these we will start by getting the verb into the imperfective, then we will apply the following steps for e.g. the structure yaf"al(u) يَفْعَلُ  .

 

Have the imperfective verb in the jussive mood (remove the mood-signs).

 

    المُضَاْرِعُ المَجْزُوْم Imperfective (jussive)o //  فَـعـلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(You) do (masc.)

taf"al

تَفْعَلْ

(You) do (fem.)

taf"alee

تَفْعَليْ

D

U

A

L

(You) do

taf"alaa

تَفْعَلا

P

L

U

R

A

L

(You) do (masc.)

taf"aloo

تَفْعَلُوْا

(You) do (fem.)

taf"aln(a)

تَفْعَلْنَ

 

►Remove the first letter from the verb (the red-colored).

 

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(You) do (masc.)

f"al

فْعَلْ

(You) do (fem.)

f"alee

فْعَليْ

D

U

A

L

(You) do

f"alaa

فْعَلا

P

L

U

R

A

L

(You) do (masc.)

f"aloo

فْعَلوا

(You) do (fem.)

f"aln(a)

فْعَلْنَ

If we were learning Hebrew, we would've been done here; but we're not, so let's move on to the next step :-)

Add  hamza(t) + i in front of the verb.

 

  فِعْلُ الأًمْرِ The Imperative //  فَـعـلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(You) do (masc.)

'if"al

اِفْعَلْ

(You) do (fem.)

'if"alee

اِفْعَليْ

D

U

A

L

(You) do

'if"alaa

اِفْعَلا

P

L

U

R

A

L

(You) do (masc.)

'if"aloo

اِفْعَلوا

(You) do (fem.)

'if"aln(a)

اِفْعَلْنَ

This was for the structure yaf"al(u) يَفْعَلُ . We will apply the same exact steps for the structure yaf"il(u) يَفْعِلُ .

The only difference will be with the structure yaf"ul(u) يَفْعُلُ . The last step will become:

Add  hamza(t) + u in front of the verb.

Example:

 

  فِعْلُ الأًمْرِ The Imperative //  كَتَبَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(You) write (masc.)

'uktub

اُكْتُبْ

(You) write (fem.)

'uktubee

اُكْتُبِيْ

D

U

A

L

(You) write

'uktubaa

اُكْتُبَاْ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(You) write (masc.)

'uktuboo

اُكْتُبُوْا

(You) write (fem.)

'uktubn(a)

اُكْتُبْنَ

 

Finally, a general scheme:

 

Imperative

الأًمْر

Perfective

المَاْضِيْ

'if"al

اِفْعَلْ

fa"?l(a)

فَعلَ

'if"il

اِفْعِلْ

'uf"ul

اُفْعُلْ

'af"il

أَفْعِلْ

'af"al(a)

أَفْعَلَ

fa""il

فَعِّلْ

fa""al(a)

فَعَّلَ

faa"il

فَاْعِلْ

faa"al(a)

فَاْعَلَ

'infa"il

اِنْفَعِلْ

'infa"al(a)

اِنْفَعَلَ

'ifta"il

اِفْتَعِلْ

'ifta"al(a)

اِفْتَعَلَ

'if"all

اِفْعَلَّ

'if"all(a)

اِفْعَلََّ

tafa""al

تَفَعَّلْ

tafa''al(a)

تَفَعَّلَ

tafaa"al

تَفَاْعَلْ

tafaa"al(a)

تَفَاْعَلَ

'istaf"il

اِسْتَفْعِلْ

'istaf"al(a)

اِسْتَفْعَلَ

fa"lil

فَعْلِلْ

fa"lal(a)

فَعْلَلَ

tafa"lal

تَفَعْلَلْ

tafa"lal(a)

تَفَعْلَلَ

tafay"al

تَفَيْعَلْ

tafay"al(a)

تَفَيْعَلَ

tamaf"al

تَمَفعَلْ

tamaf"al(a)

تَمَفعَلَ

'if"alall

اِفْعَلِلّ

'if"alall(a)

اِفْعَلَلَّ

 

 

 

 

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