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  Arabic Online

ARABIC ONLINE

        اللّغة العربيّة    

Arabic Online

 

• Welcome!

• Varieties of Arabic

• Alphabet

• Pronunciation
• Words
• Vowels
• Reading out

• Syllables

• Stress

• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Roots

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• Historical phonology

• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

• Dual Nouns

• Plural Nouns EDITED

• Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

• Feminine Plural Nouns

• Irregular Plural Nouns
• Articles

• Case Inflection

• Case Endings

• The Six Nouns

• Noonation

• Adjectives

• Genitive Construction

• Am/Is/Are Sentences

• Verbs

• Irregular Verbs

• Verb Forms

• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

• Irregular Perfective Conjugation

• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

• Moods

• Subjunctive Mood

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• Passive Voice

• Passive Perfective Verbs

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• Passive of Irregular Verbs

• Subject Pronouns

• Object Pronouns

• Demonstratives

• Relative Pronouns

• Sentences

• To Have

• Incomplete Verbs

• Frozen Verbs

• Verb-Like Particles

• Negation

• Present Negative

• Past Negative

• Future Negative

• Negation+Exclusion Style

• Interrogation

• Yes/No Questions

• Interrogative Pronouns

• Polite Request

• Introductory Particles

• Infinitival/Indefinite maa

• Prepositions

• Conjunctions

• Adverbs

• Inactive Particles

• Ablative Particles

• Vocative Particles

• Exclamatory Style

• Praise & Disparagement

• Derived Nouns

• Verbal Nouns

• Active Participles

• Passive Participles

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Frozen Verbs

 

Every verb in Arabic can have three different structures, the perfective, the imperfective, and the imperative.

Perfective (He) did fa"al(a) فَعَلَ
Imperfective (He) does yaf"al(u) يَفْعَلُ
Imperative (You) do! 'if"al اِفْعَلْ

 

This characteristic of verbs having three different structures is called in Arabic "manageability" التَّصَرُّفُ. A verb that can assume all of the three structures is said to be "fully manageable" تَاْمُّ التَّصَرُّفِ . Most verbs are fully manageable.

A verb that can assume only two of the three structures (the perfective and the imperfective) is said to be "partially manageable" نَاْقِصُ التَّصَرُّفِ .

A verb that can assume only one of the three structures is said to be "unmanageable" or a "frozen verb"  فِعْلٌ جَاْمِدٌ .

 

Different Manageabilities
  Perfective Imperfective Imperative
Fully Manageable Yes Yes Yes
Partially Manageable Yes Yes No
Frozen Yes No No
Frozen No Yes No
Frozen No No Yes

 

We will go in this section through the important frozen and partially manageable verbs.

 

Verbs Frozen in the Perfective

Those verbs only exist in the perfective structure.

 

1. two of the incomplete verbs called "sisters of kaan(a)" أَخَوَاْتُ كَاْنَ are frozen in the perfective.

Frozen Incomplete Verbs

Is not

lays(a)

لَيْسَ

was not

As long as

As long as there be

maa daam(a)

مَاْ دَاْمَ

ever lasted

These two verbs are very widely used in the Arabic language. The second one is only used with the negative particle maa; and it is only frozen when it is used in the incomplete sense (see incomplete verbs).

 

2. all of the verbs of approach, hope, and proceeding are frozen in the perfective except for two. Those verbs are also called the "sisters of kaad(a)" أَخَوَاْتُ كَاْدَ .

The verbs in black are obsolete.

 Frozen Incomplete Verbs (Approach)

karab(a)

كَرَبَ

 

 Frozen Incomplete Verbs (Hope)

"asaa

عَسَىْ

haraa

حَرَىْ

'ikhlawlaq(a)

اِخْلَوْلَقَ

 

 Frozen Incomplete Verbs (Proceeding)

ja"al(a)

جَعَلَ

'akhath(a)

أَخَذَ

'ansha'(a)

أَنْشَأَ

shara"(a)

شَرَعَ

tafiq(a)

طَفِقَ

'inbaraa

اِنْبَرَىْ

bada'(a)

بَدَأَ

'ibtada'(a)

اِبْتَدَأَ

qaam(a)

قَاْمَ

"aliq(a)

عَلِقَ

habb(a)

هَبَّ

These verbs are only frozen when used in the incomplete sense.

 

3. verbs of praise and disparagement.

 Frozen Verbs (Praise)

ni"m(a) نِعْمَ
hasun(a) حَسُنَ
habbathaa حَبَّذَاْ

 

 Frozen Verbs (Disparagement)

bi's(a)

بِئْسَ

saa'(a)

سَاْءَ

laa habbathaa

لا حَبَّذَاْ

 

4. some prepositions used for exclusion are frozen perfective verbs.

 

 Frozen Verbs (Exclusive Prepositions)

Except

"adaa

عَدَاْ

khalaa

خَلا

haashaa

حَاْشَاْ

 

5. some verbs that are added to infinitival maa  مَاْto become adverbs will also become frozen verbs.

Frozen Verbs (Adverbial Phrases)
Meaning Adverb and Literal Sense
Infrequently / rarely

qalla-maa

قَلَّمَاْ

(he/it) was infrequent that

Frequently / often

kathura-maa

كَثُرَمَاْ

(he/it) was frequent that

For a long time / repeatedly

taala-maa

طَاْلَمَاْ

(he/it) was long that

For a short time / seldom

qasura-maa

قَصُرَمَاْ

(he/it) was short that

Much

jalla-maa

جَلَّمَاْ

(he/it) was solemn that

Much

shadda-maa

شَدَّمَاْ

(he/it) was hard that

Much

"azza-maa

عَزَّمَاْ

(he/it) was dear that

 

Examples:

قَلَّمَاْ يَأْتِيْ

qalla-maa ya'tee

= rarely comes (he)

Translation: he rarely comes

 

طَاْلَمَاْ عَرْفْتُهَاْ

taala-maa "araftu-haa

= for a long time (I) knew her

Translation: I've known her for a long time

 

عَزَّمَاْ يُعْجِبُنِيْ الشِّعْرُ الْعَرَبِيُّ

"azza-maa yu"jibu-nee ('a)sh-shi"r(u) ('a)l-"arabiyy(u)

= much (he) impresses me the poetry the Arabic

Translation: I like Arabic poetry a lot

 

 

These words can often take an emphatic la- :

لَطَاْلَمَاْ عَرْفْتُهَاْ

la-taala-maa "araftu-haa

= certainly for a long time (I) knew her

Translation: I've known her for a long time

 

 

6. the passive verb suqit(a) is a frozen verb.

This verb is identical in meaning to the fully manageable verb 'usqit(a).

 

(he/it) was dropped

(Frozen Verb)

suqit(a)

سُقِطَ

(he/it) was dropped

(Fully Manageable Verb)

 'usqit(a)

أُسْقِطَ

 

These two verbs are used in the following idiom:

أُسْقِطَ فِيْ يَدِهِ

 'usqit(a) fee yadi-h(i)

= (he/it) was dropped in (the) hand (of) him

(he/it) was dropped in his hand

Translation: he felt regret

 Or: he became confused

 

7. the verb "imt(a).

 

(You sing. masc.) were pleased

(Frozen Verb)

 "imt(a)

عِمْتَ

 

This verb is an alteration of the following fully manageable verb:

 

(You sing. masc.) were pleased

(Fully Manageable Verb)

 na"imt(a)

نَعِمْتَ

 

The verb "imt(a) was commonly used in classical Arabic to say "good morning" and "good evening."

عِمْتَ صَبَاْحًا

"imt(a) sabaaha(n)

= (you sing. masc.) were pleased in the morning

= have a pleasant morning

Translation: good morning

 

عِمْتِ مَسَاْءً

"imt(i) masaa'a(n)

= (you sing. fem.) were pleased in the evening

= have a pleasant evening

Translation: good evening (to a female)

 

 

 

 

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