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  Arabic Online

ARABIC ONLINE

        اللّغة العربيّة    

Arabic Online

 

• Welcome!

• Varieties of Arabic

• Alphabet

• Pronunciation
• Words
• Vowels
• Reading out

• Syllables

• Stress

• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Roots

• Sibawayh's phonology

• Historical phonology

• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

• Dual Nouns

• Plural Nouns EDITED

• Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

• Feminine Plural Nouns

• Irregular Plural Nouns
• Articles

• Case Inflection

• Case Endings

• The Six Nouns

• Noonation

• Adjectives

• Genitive Construction

• Am/Is/Are Sentences

• Verbs

• Irregular Verbs

• Verb Forms

• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

• Irregular Perfective Conjugation

• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

• Moods

• Subjunctive Mood

• Jussive Mood

• Mood Signs

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• Passive Voice

• Passive Perfective Verbs

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• Passive of Irregular Verbs

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Verbs

Passive Voice (continued)

Irregular verbs

For description of irregular verb types, you may go here

 

1) Doubled Verbs

Doubled verbs are verbs that end with a shadda(t), which indicates doubled consonants without a vowel in between.

Passive doubled verbs conjugate just like the active ones. Only vowels will be different, including the omitted or displaced-back green vowel. When untying in the perfective, the inserted green vowel will always be i, and in the imperfective it will always be a.

 

2) Mithaal Verbs

Mithaal verbs are verbs whose first original letter is a weak letter.

Passive Mithaal verbs take pronominal prefixes and suffixes like the active ones; however, in the imperfective, they do not lose their weak letter in any situation.

Examples:

Passive

Active

wujid(a)

وُجِدَ

wajad(a)

وَجَدَ

≡ (he/it) was/became found by somebody

≡ (he/it) has been/become found by somebody

(he) found

(he) has found

wudi"(a)

وُضِعَ

wada"(a)

وَضَعَ

≡ (he/it) was/became put by somebody

≡ (he/it) has been/become put by somebody

(he) put

(he) has put

yuwjad(u)

يُوْجَدُ

yajid(u)

يَجِدُ

≡ (he/it) is/becomes found by somebody

≡ (he/it) is being/becoming found by somebody

≡ (he/it) will be/become found by somebody

(he) finds

(he) is finding

(he) will find

yuwda"(u)

يُوْضَعُ

yada"(u)

يَضَعُ

≡ (he/it) is/becomes put by somebody

≡ (he/it) is being/becoming put by somebody

≡ (he/it) will be/become put by somebody

(he) puts

(he) is putting

(he) will put

 

 

3) Hollow Verbs

Hollow verbs are verbs whose second original letter is a weak letter.

Since the internal passive is about changing vowels, the middle weak letter of hollow verbs will be affected, because it changes with changes in vowels.

However, the rule here is easy and I am not going to complicate it by going through the details and differences between classical dialects etc.

For the perfective hollow verbs, the internal long A will be always transformed to a long I in the passive voice (corresponds to the green vowel i ) regardless of anything and in all the verb forms.

-CaaC-  -CeeC-

Examples:

Passive

Active

qeel(a)

قِيْلَ

qaal(a)

قَاْلَ

≡ (he/it) was/became said by somebody

≡ (he/it) has been/become said by somebody

(he) said

(he) has said

bee"(a)

بِيْعَ

baa"(a)

بَاْعَ

≡ (he/it) was/became sold by somebody

≡ (he/it) has been/become sold by somebody

(he) sold

(he) has sold

kheef(a)

خِيْفَ

khaaf(a)

خَاْفَ

≡ (he/it) was/became feared by somebody

≡ (he/it) has been/become feared by somebody

(he) feared

(he) has feared

'ureed(a)

أُرِيْدَ

'araad(a)

أَرَاْدَ

≡ (he/it) was/became wanted by somebody

≡ (he/it) has been/become wanted by somebody

(he) wanted

(he) has wanted

'ukhteer(a)

اُخْتِيْرَ

'ikhtaar(a)

اِخْتَاْرَ

≡ (he/it) was/became chosen by somebody

≡ (he/it) has been/become chosen by somebody

(he) chose

(he) has chosen

'ustu"eed(a)

اُسْتُعِيْدَ

'ista"aad(a)

اِسْتَعَاْدَ

≡ (he/it) was/became taken back by somebody

≡ (he/it) has been/become taken back by somebody

(he) took back

(he) has taken back

 

The internal long vowel of the imperfective hollow verbs will always become a long A in the passive voice (corresponds to the green vowel a ) regardless of anything and in all the verb forms.

-CooC-    
-CeeC-

-CaaC-

-CaaC-    

Examples:

Passive

Active

yuqaal(u)

يُقَاْلُ

yaqool(u)

يَقُوْلُ

≡ (he/it) is/becomes said by somebody

≡ (he/it) is being/becoming said by somebody

≡ (he/it) will be/become said by somebody

(he) says

(he) is saying

(he) will say

yubaa"(u)

يُبَاْعُ

yabee"(u)

يَبِيْعُ

≡ (he/it) is/becomes sold by somebody

≡ (he/it) is being/becoming sold by somebody

≡ (he/it) will be/become sold by somebody

(he) sells

(he) is selling

(he) will sell

yukhaaf(u)

يُخَاْفُ

yakhaaf(u)

يَخَاْفُ

 

≡ (he/it) is/becomes feared by somebody

≡ (he/it) will be/become feared by somebody

(he) fears

(he) will fear

yuraad(u)

يُرَاْدُ

yureed(u)

يُرِيْدُ

≡ (he/it) is/becomes wanted by somebody

≡ (he/it) will be/become wanted by somebody

(he) wants

(he) will want

yukhtaar(u)

يُخْتَاْرُ

yakhtaar(u)

يَخْتَاْرُ

≡ (he/it) is/becomes chosen by somebody

≡ (he/it) is being/becoming chosen by somebody

≡ (he/it) will be/become chosen by somebody

(he) chooses

(he) is choosing

(he) will choose

yusta"aad(u)

يُسْتَعَاْدُ

yasta"eed(u)

يَسْتَعِيْدُ

≡ (it) is/becomes responded by somebody

≡ (it) is being/becoming responded by somebody

≡ (it) will be/become responded by somebody

(he) responds

(he) is responding

(he) will respond

 

Adding pronominal prefixes and suffixes to passive hollow verbs works just like for the active hollow verbs; however, there is a little difference that regards perfective hollow verbs.

For the active perfective hollow verbs, we explained that the middle long A will be replaced in most conjugations with a specific short vowel.

Conjugation of Perfective Hollow Verbs

(Active Voice)

Form I

fawal(a)

aa u

fayal(a)

aa i

fa"il(a)

Other Forms

aa a

 

In the passive voice of from I, the resultant middle short vowel will be the opposite of that of the active verbs.

Conjugation of Perfective Hollow Verbs

(Passive Voice)

Form I

fawal(a)

ee i

fayal(a)

ee u

fa"il(a)

Other Forms

ee i

 

Examples:

Passive

Active

qilt(u)

قِلْتُ

qult(u)

قُلْتُ

≡ (I) was/became said by somebody

(I) said

bu"t(u)

بُعْتُ

bi"t(u)

بِعْتُ

≡ (I) was/became sold by somebody

(I) sold

khuft(u)

خُفْتُ

khift(u)

خِفْتُ

≡ (I) was/became feared by somebody

(I) feared

'uridt(u)

أُرِدْتُ

'aradt(u)

أَرَدْتُ

≡ (I) was/became wanted by somebody

(I) wanted

 

It is important to note that passive perfective hollow form I verbs are virtually never used in Modern Standard Arabic in conjugations that require replacing their middle ee's with a short vowel, that is, the above mentioned rule of changing u to i and i to u in these verbs is only of theoretical and historical notability but not of practical one.

 

4) Defective Verbs

Defective verbs are verbs whose last original letter is a weak letter.

 

Since the green short vowel in the passive perfective verbs is always i, these verbs will always end with -iy(a).

 

Examples:

 

Passive

Active

du"iy(a)

دُعِيَ

da"aa

دَعَاْ

≡ (he/it) was/became called by somebody

≡ (he/it) has been/became called by somebody

(he) called

(he) has called

'utiy(a)

أُتِيَ

'ataa

أَتَىْ

≡ (he/it) was/became came (to) by somebody

≡ (he/it) has been/became came (to) by somebody

(he) came (to)

(he) has came (to)

nusiy(a)

نُسِيَ

nasiy(a)

نَسِيَ

≡ (he/it) was/became forgotten by somebody

≡ (he/it) has been/became forgotten by somebody

(he) forgot

(he) has forgotten

'untuhiy(a)

اُنْتُهِيَ

'intahaa

اِنْتَهَىْ

≡ (it) was/became finished by somebody

≡ (he/it) has been/became finished by somebody

(he) finished

(he) has finished

 

 

 

Since the green short vowel in the passive imperfective verbs is always a, these verbs will always end with -aa.

 

Examples:

 

Passive

Active

yud"aa

يُدْعَىْ

yad"uw

يَدْعُوْ

≡ (he/it) is/becomes called by somebody

≡ (he/it) is being/becoming called by somebody

≡ (he/it) will be/become called by somebody

(he) calls

(he) is calling

(he) will call

yu'<taa

يُؤْتَىْ

ya'<tiy

يَأْتِيْ

≡ (he/it) is/becomes came (to) by somebody

≡ (he/it) is being/becoming came (to) by somebody

≡ (he/it) will be/become came (to) by somebody

(he) comes

(he) is coming

(he) will come

yunsaa

يُنْسَىْ

yansaa

يَنْسَىْ

≡ (he/it) is/becomes forgotten by somebody

≡ (he/it) will be/become forgotten by somebody

(he) forgets

(he) will forget

yuntahaa

يُنْتَهَىْ

yantahiy

يَنْتَهِيْ

≡ (he/it) is/becomes finished by somebody

≡ (he/it) is being/becoming finished by somebody

≡ (he/it) will be/become finished by somebody

(he) finishes

(he) is finishing

(he) will finish

 

 

Passive defective verbs take pronominal prefixes and suffixes just like the active verbs.

 

IV. Enfolding Verbs

Enfolding verbs are two types:

  • Verbs that have a middle and final weak original letters C-C-C

  • Verbs that have a first and final weak original letters C-C-C

The first type enfolds the definitions of both hollow and defective verbs, yet it is always treated as a defective verb only, and the middle weak letter is treated as if it were a sound letter.

Examples:

Passive

Active

luwiy(a)

لُوِيَ

lawaa

لَوَىْ

≡ (he/it) was/became bent by somebody

≡ (he/it) has been/become bent by somebody

(he) bent (tr.)

(he) has bent (tr.)

yulwaa

يُلْوَىْ

yalwiy

يَلْوِيْ

≡ (he/it) is/becomes bent by somebody

≡ (he/it) is being/becoming bent by somebody

≡ (he/it) will be/become bent by somebody

(he) bends (tr.)

(he) is bending (tr.)

(he) will bend (tr.)

 

 

The second type of the enfolding verbs enfolds the definitions of both Mithaal and defective verbs. These verbs get the dealing of both Mithaal and defective verbs together.

Examples:

Passive

Active

wu"iy(a)

وُعِيَ

wa"aa

وَعَىْ

≡ (he/it) was/became understood by somebody

≡ (he/it) has been/become understood by somebody

(he) understood

(he) has understood

yuw"aa

يُوْعَىْ

ya"iy

يَعِيْ

≡ (he/it) is/becomes understood by somebody

≡ (he/it) is being/becoming understood by somebody

≡ (he/it) will be/become understood by somebody

(he) understands

(he) is understanding

(he) will understand

 

 

 

Enfolding Verbs

Root: C-C-C

Treat as defective verbs

Root: C-C-C

Treat as Mithaal & defective verbs

Where C is a sound consonant, and C is a weak consonant.

 

 

Transitive and Intransitive Passive Verbs

The passive voice is two types, personal passive and impersonal passive.

Personal Passive

He was known as a smart guy

Impersonal Passive

It is now known that this was not true

 

The personal passive can only be made out of transitive verbs (verbs that can have objects).

For example:

Active Passive
He saw something He was seen
He ate something He was eaten
He smelled something He was smelt
He slept ... ...
He died ... ...
He got sick ... ...

 

Notice that verbs that cannot have objects (intransitive verbs) like "sleep" and "die" cannot be made into personal passive; it is not possible to "sleep something" or "die something," so there is no such thing as for someone "to be slept" or "to be died."

 

However, for the impersonal passive, there is indeed such thing as "to be slept" or "to be died;" the impersonal passive can be made out of intransitive as well as transitive verbs.

 

Examples:

 

Active

Passive

Somebody saw

It was seen (by somebody)

Somebody ate

It was eaten (by somebody)

Somebody smelled

It was smelt (by somebody)

Somebody slept

It was slept (by somebody)

Somebody died

It was died (by somebody)

Somebody got sick

It was gotten sick (by somebody)

 

 

In Arabic, any verb can be made passive.

 

When transitive verbs are made into the passive of the unknown, they will have either one of two meanings:

 

Personal Passive

≡ (He) was/became done by somebody

Impersonal Passive

≡ (It) was/became done by somebody

 

When intransitive verbs are made into the passive of the unknown, they will have only one meaning:

 

Personal Passive

---

Impersonal Passive

≡ (It) was/became done by somebody

 

 

Examples on passive intransitive verbs:

 

Passive

Active

thuhib(a)

ذُهِبَ

thahab(a)

ذَهَبَ

≡ (it) was gone by somebody

) →somebody) went

(he) went

tu"ib(a)

تُعِبَ

ta"ib(a)

تَعِبَ

≡ (it) was become tired by somebody

) →somebody) became tired

(he) became tired

furih(a)

فُرِحَ

farih(a)

فَرِحَ

≡ (it) was become happy by somebody

) →somebody) became happy

(he) became happy

suhil(a)

سُهِلَ

sahul(a)

سَهُلَ

≡ (it) was "been"/become easy(er) by somebody

) →somebody) was/became easy(er)

(he) was/became easy(er)

surir(a)

صُغِرَ

sarur(a)

صَغُرَ

≡ (it) was "been"/become small(er) by somebody

→ (somebody) was/became small(er)

(he) was/became small(er)

'untuliq(a)

اُنْطُلِقَ

'intalaq(a)

اِنْطَلَقَ

≡ (it) was "been"/become launched by somebody

→ (somebody) was/became launched

(he) was/became launched

'ujtuhid(a)

اُجْتُهِدَ

'ijtahad(a)

اِجْتَهَدَ

≡ (it) was "been"/become diligent by somebody

→ (somebody) was/became diligent

(he) was/became diligent

'ukhdurr(a)

اُخْضُرَّ

'ikhdarr(a)

اِخْضَرَّ

≡ (it) was greened (up) by somebody

→ (somebody) greened (up)

(he) greened (up)

'ustujiyb(a)

اُسْتُجِيْبَ

'istajaab(a)

اِسْتَجَاْبَ

≡ (it) was answered by somebody

→ (somebody) answered

(he) answered (plea), responded

 

Such passive intransitive verbs are not uncommon in Arabic. Verb forms that are always or frequently intransitive include forms VI, VII, IX, X, XI, fa"ul(a) verbs of form I, and others.

 

A simplified formula for the meaning of passive intransitive verbs would be:

(Somebody) did

This is particularly useful for stative verbs which do not have direct English equivalents such as ta"ib(a), farih(a), sahul(a), etc.

 

For example, the verb:

سَلِمَ

salim(a)

(He) was/became safe

 

The passive is:

سُلِمَ

sulim(a)

(Somebody) was/became safe

We just changed "he" to "somebody;" this is simpler than going through the full formula "it was "been"/become safe by somebody."

 

  Active Voice Passive Voice

Transitive Verb

(He) did

≡ (He) was/became done by somebody

≡ (Somebody) did

Intransitive Verb

(He) did

≡ (Somebody) did

 

 

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