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  Arabic Online

ARABIC ONLINE

        اللّغة العربيّة    

Arabic Online

 

• Welcome!

• Varieties of Arabic

• Alphabet

• Pronunciation
• Words
• Vowels
• Reading out

• Syllables

• Stress

• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Roots

• Sibawayh's phonology

• Historical phonology

• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

• Dual Nouns

• Plural Nouns EDITED

• Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

• Feminine Plural Nouns

• Irregular Plural Nouns
• Articles

• Case Inflection

• Case Endings

• The Six Nouns

• Noonation

• Adjectives

• Genitive Construction

• Am/Is/Are Sentences

• Verbs

• Irregular Verbs

• Verb Forms

• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

• Irregular Perfective Conjugation

• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

• Moods

• Subjunctive Mood

• Jussive Mood

• Mood Signs

• Energetic Mood

• Imperative Mood

• Passive Voice

• Passive Perfective Verbs

• Passive Imperfective Verbs

• Passive of Irregular Verbs

• Subject Pronouns

• Object Pronouns

• Demonstratives

• Relative Pronouns

• Sentences

• To Have

• Incomplete Verbs

• Frozen Verbs

• Verb-Like Particles

• Negation

• Present Negative

• Past Negative

• Future Negative

• Negation+Exclusion Style

• Interrogation

• Yes/No Questions

• Interrogative Pronouns

• Polite Request

• Introductory Particles

• Infinitival/Indefinite maa

• Prepositions

• Conjunctions

• Adverbs

• Inactive Particles

• Ablative Particles

• Vocative Particles

• Exclamatory Style

• Praise & Disparagement

• Derived Nouns

• Verbal Nouns

• Active Participles

• Passive Participles

• Participle-like Adjectives

• Comparatives

• Place-nouns

• Time-nouns

• Tool-nouns

• Attributives

• Diminutives

• Vocabulary

• Dialects

• Survival Phrases

 

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Mood Signs

 

Irregular verbs in general take the mood-signs regularly. Nonetheless, defective verbs are irregular when it comes to mood-signs, and hollow verbs require one alteration when they are in the jussive mood. It should be remembered that the plural feminine conjugations are always built words and will not undergo mood inflection.

 

The possible mood signs for verbs are:

Mood Signs for Imperfective Verbs

عَلامَاْتُ الإِعْرَاْبِ لِلأَفْعَاْلِ الْمُضَاْرِعَةِ

Indicative

Apparent u

damma(tun) zaahira(tun)

ضَمَّةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

Estimated u

fatha(tun) zaahira(tun)

ضَمَّةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

presence of noon thuboot(u) ('a)n-noon(i) ثُبُوْتُ الْنُّوْنِ
Subjunctive

Apparent a

fatha(tun) zaahira(tun)

فَتْحَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

Estimated a

fatha(tun) muqaddara(tun)

فَتْحَةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

Omission of noon hathf(u) ('a)n-noon(i) حَذْفُ الْنُّوْنِ

Jussive

No vowel (stillness)

('a)s-sukoon(u)

الْسُّكُوْنُ

Omission of the weak letter

hathf(u) harf(i) ('a)l-"illa(ti) حَذْفُ حَرْفِ الْعِلَّةِ

Omission of noon

hathf(u) ('a)n-noon(i) حَذْفُ الْنُّوْنِ

 

All verbs will have regular signs except for the defective and hollow verbs.

 

 

 

Defective Verbs

 

Defective verbs النَاْقِصُ are verbs whose last original letter is a weak letter. The imperfective of a defective root will end in a weak letter.

Altering the mood sign will not be an issue for the "five verbs" الأَفْعَاْلُ الخَمْسَة , because it is simply either to keep or remove the last noon ن . The problem would be, however, when adding a short vowel mood sign (a move) to a long vowel final letter, which is the case for the rest of the verbs other than the five verbs.

 

1.Signs of the indicative mood عَلامَاْتُ الْرَفْعِ

 

Regular signs:

  • Verbs other than the "five verbs" : apparent u  ضَمَّةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

  • The "five verbs" : presence of noon ثُبُوْتُ الْنُوْنِ  ن  

 

Defective verbs other than the five verbs will have the following endings:

Indicative

Mood sign

Ending

Example

Estimated u

ضَمَّةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

-aa

ـَىْ

يَرَىْ

(he) sees

-oo

ـُوْ

يَدْعُوْ

(he) calls

-ee

ـِيْ

يَأْتِيْ

(he) comes

 

2.Signs of the subjunctive mood عَلامَاْتُ النَصْبِ

 

Regular signs:

  • Verbs other than the "five verbs" : apparent a  فَتْحَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

  • The "five verbs" : omission of noon حَذْفُ الْنُوْنِ  ن  

 

Endings of defective verbs other than the five verbs will be:

Subjunctive

Mood sign

Ending

Example

Estimated a

فَتْحَةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

-aa

ـَىْ

يَرَىْ

(he) see

Apparent a

فَتْحَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

-uwa

ـُوَ

يَدْعُوَ

(he) call

-iya

ـِيَ

يَأْتِيَ

(he) come

 

 

3.Signs of the jussive mood عَلامَاْتُ الجَزْمِ

 

Regular signs:

  • Verbs other than the "five verbs" : no vowel (stillness) السُكُوْن

  • The "five verbs" : omission of noon حَذْفُ الْنُوْنِ  ن  

 

 

Endings of defective verbs other than the five verbs:

Jussive

Mood sign

Ending

Example

Omission of the weak letter

حَذْفُ حَرْفِ الْعِلَّةِ

-a--

---َ

يَرَ

(he) see

-u--

---ُ

يَدْعُ

(he) call

-i--

---ِ

يَأْتِ

(he) come

The long vowels were omitted and replaced with the corresponding short vowel.

 

Example: ( أَتَىْ 'ataa = came (to)). The root is :  أ ت ي  T Y '

 

  المُضَاْرِعُ المَجْزُوْم Imperfective (jussive)o //  أَتَىْ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) come

'aati

آتِ

(You) come (masc.)

ta'<ti

تَأْتِ

(You) come (fem.)

ta'<tee

تَأَتِيْ

(He) come

ya'<ti

يَأْتِ

(She) come

ta'<ti

تَأْتِ

D

U

A

L

(You) come

ta'<tiyaa

تَأْتِيَاْ

(They) come (masc.)

ya'<tiyaa

يَأْتِيَاْ

(They) come (fem.)

ta'<tiyaa

تَأْتِيَاْ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We) come (dual / plu.)

na'<ti

نَأْتِ

(You) come (masc.)

ta'<too

تََأْتُوْا

(You) come (fem.)

ta'<teen(a)

تَأْتِيْنَ

(They) come (masc.)

ya'<too

يَأْتُوْا

(They) come (fem.)

ta'<teen(a)

تَأْتِيْنَ

 

 

Hollow Verbs

 

Hollow verbs الأَجْوَفُ are verbs that have a weak letter as the second original letter. Hollow verbs act perfectly normal in terms of mood signs. However, there is one change that should be applied to these verbs when they are in the jussive mood; the middle weak letter must be omitted.

Examples:

 

Jussive

Indicative

yaqul

يَقُلْ

yaqool(u) يَقُوْلُ
yabi" يَبِعْ yabee"(u) يَبِيْعُ
yanam يَنَمْ yanaam(u) يَنَاْمُ

 

However, this change will spare the "five verbs." These will retain the middle weak letter.

Example: ( كَاْنَ kaan(a) = was). The root is :  ك و ن K W N

 

  المُضَاْرِعُ المَجْزُوْم Imperfective (jussive)o //  كَاْنَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) be

'akun

أَكُنْ

(You) be (masc.)

takun

تَكُنْ

(You) be (fem.)

takoonee

تَكُوْنِيْ

(He) be

yakun

يَكُنْ

(She) be

takun

تَكُنْ

D

U

A

L

(You) be

takoonaa

تَكُوْنَاْ

(They) be (masc.)

yakoonaa

يَكُوْنَاْ

(They) be (fem.)

takoonaa

تَكُوْنَاْ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We) be (dual / plu.)

nakun

نَكُنْ

(You) be (masc.)

takoonoo

تَكُوْنُوْا

(You) be (fem.)

takunn(a)

تَكُنَّ

(They) be (masc.)

yakoonoo

يَكُوْنُوْا

(They) be (fem.)

takunn(a)

تُكُنَّ