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  Arabic Online

ARABIC ONLINE

        اللّغة العربيّة    

Arabic Online

 

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Introduction

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Accent and Stress

Rules of Pause

Writing of Letter 'alif

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Nouns

Irregular Nouns

Declension

Noun Gender

Feminine Markers

Singular Nouns

Dual Nouns

Plural Nouns EDITED

Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

Feminine Plural Nouns

Irregular Plural Nouns
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Case Inflection

Case Endings

The Six Nouns

Noonation

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Case Signs

 

The three grammatical cases in Arabic are:

  • Nominative (subject) = 'ar-raf"(u) الرَّفْعُ

  • Accusative = 'an-nasb(u) النَّصْبُ

  • Genitive = 'al-jarr(u) الْجَرُّ

You may click here for definitions of the grammatical cases.

 

The possible case-signs عَلامَاْتُ الإِعْرَاْبِ for singular nouns collectively are:

Case-Signs for Singular Nouns

عَلامَاْتُ الإِعْرَاْبِ لِلأَسْمَاْءِ الْمُفْرَدَةِ

Apparent Short U

damma(tun) zaahira(tun)

ضَمَّةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

Apparent Short A

fatha(tun) zaahira(tun)

فَتْحَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

Apparent Short I

kasra(tun) zaahira(tun)

كَسْرَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

Estimated Short U

damma(tun) muqaddara(tun)

ضَمَّةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

Estimated Short A

fatha(tun) muqaddara(tun)

فَتْحَةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

Estimated Short I

kasra(tun) muqaddara(tun)

كَسْرَةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

N.B. the word "estimated" is used a lot in Arabic grammar. They mean by it "supposed" or "assumed."

 

 

1. Regular Nouns

 

I. Singular Nouns

 

الْوَلَدُ

the child (masc.)

 

 

Case-Sign

Case

Noun

Apparent Short U

ضَمَّةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

'al-walad(u) الْوَلَدُ
Apparent Short A

فَتْحَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

'al-walad(a) الْوَلَدَ
Apparent Short I

كَسْرَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

'al-walad(i) الْوَلَدِ

 

 

 

 

II. Dual Nouns

 

الْوَلَدَاْنِ

the two children (masc.)

 

 

Case-sign

Case

Noun

The 'alif

الأَلِفُ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

'al-waladaan(i) الْوَلَدَاْنِ

The yaa'<

الْيَاْءُ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

'al-waladayn(i) الْوَلَدَيْنِ

The yaa'<

الْيَاْءُ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

'al-waladayn(i) الْوَلَدَيْنِ

The noon ن in the dual ending is not part of the case-sign but rather is the dual form of Noonation.

 

 

III. Masculine Plural Nouns

 

الْمُعَلِّمُوْنَ

the teachers (masc.)

 

 

Case-Sign

Case

Noun

The waaw

الْوَاْوُ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

'al-mu"allimoon(a) الْمُعَلِّمُوْنَ

The yaa'<

الْيَاْءُ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

'al-mu"allimeen(a) الْمُعَلِّمِيْنَ

The yaa'<

الْيَاْءُ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

'al-mu"allimeen(a) الْمُعَلِّمِيْنَ

The noon ن in the masculine plural ending is not part of the case-sign but rather is the masculine plural form of Noonation.

 

 

IV. Feminine Plural Nouns

 

الْمُعَلِّمَاْتُ

the teachers (fem.)

 

Case-Sign

Case

Noun

Apparent Short U

ضَمَّةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

'al-mu"allimaat(u) الْمُعَلِّمَاْتُ
Apparent Short I

كَسْرَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

'al-mu"allimaat(i) الْمُعَلِّمَاْتِ
Apparent Short I

كَسْرَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

'al-mu"allimaat(i) الْمُعَلِّمَاْتِ

 

 

V. Irregular Plural Nouns

We mentioned before that all irregular plural nouns are treated grammatically as if they were singular nouns when it comes to case declension, thus they will take the case-signs of singular nouns.

الأَوْلادُ

the children (masc.)

 

 

 

Case-Sign

Case

Noun

Apparent Short U

ضَمَّةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

'al-'awlaad(u)

الأَوْلادُ

Apparent Short A

فَتْحَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

'al-'awlaad(a)

الأَوْلادَ

Apparent Short I

كَسْرَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

'al-'awlaad(i)

الأَوْلادِ

 

 

 

 

2. Irregular Nouns

(For definitions of irregular noun types, you may click here)

 

I. Shortened Nouns

الْعَصَاْ

the stick, the cane (fem.)

 

 

Case-Sign

Case

Noun

Estimated Short U

ضَمَّةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

'al-"asaa الْعَصَاْ

Estimated Short A

فَتْحَةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

'al-"asaa الْعَصَاْ

Estimated Short I

كَسْرَةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

'al-"asaa الْعَصَاْ

 

 

II. Extended Nouns

الْمَاْءُ

the water (masc.)

 

 

Case-Sign

Case

Noun

Apparent Short U

ضَمَّةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

'al-maa'(u) الْمَاْءُ
Apparent Short A

فَتْحَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

'al-maa'(a) الْمَاْءَ
Apparent Short I

كَسْرَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

'al-maa'(i) الْمَاْءِ

 

 

III. Defective Nouns

الْقَاْضِيْ

the judge (masc.)

 

 

Case-Sign

Case

Noun

Estimated Short U

ضَمَّةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

'al-qaadee الْقَاْضِيْ
Apparent Short A

فَتْحَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

'al-qaadiy(a) الْقَاْضِيَ

Estimated Short I

كَسْرَةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

'al-qaadee الْقَاْضِيْ

 

 

 

Case-Endings of Nouns in the Definite State

Noun Nominative Accusative Genitive
R

E

G

U

L

A

R

Singular

-u

-a -i
Dual -aan -ayn -ayn
Masculine Plural -oon -een -een
Feminine Plural -u -i -i
Irregular Plural

-u

-a -i
 

I

R

R

E

G

U

L

A

R

 

Shortened --- --- ---
Extended

-u

-a -i
Defective --- -a ---

 

See here for case-endings of nouns in the indefinite state.

See here for case-endings of nouns in the construct state.

 

There are two categories of words in Arabic that take case-signs other than what has been mentioned on this page: