Make your own free website on Tripod.com
  Arabic Online

ARABIC ONLINE

        اللّغة العربيّة    

Arabic Online

 

• Welcome!

• Introduction

• Alphabet

• Pronunciation
• Words
• Vowels
• Reading out

• Accent and Stress

• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Roots

• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

• Dual Nouns

• Plural Nouns EDITED

• Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

• Feminine Plural Nouns

• Irregular Plural Nouns
• Articles

• Case Inflection

• Case Endings

• The Six Nouns

• Noonation

• Adjectives

• Genitive Construction

• Am/Is/Are Sentences

• Verbs

• Irregular Verbs

• Verb Forms

• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

• Irregular Perfective Conjugation

• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

• Moods

• Subjunctive Mood

• Jussive Mood

• Mood Signs

• Energetic Mood

• Imperative Mood

• Passive Voice

• Passive Perfective Verbs

• Passive Imperfective Verbs

• Passive of Irregular Verbs

• Subject Pronouns

• Object Pronouns

• Demonstratives

• Relative Pronouns

• Sentences

• To Have

• Incomplete Verbs

• Frozen Verbs

• Verb-Like Particles

• Negation

• Present Negative

• Past Negative

• Future Negative

• Negation+Exclusion Style

• Interrogation

• Yes/No Questions

• Interrogative Pronouns

• Polite Request

• Introductory Particles

• Infinitival/Indefinite maa

• Prepositions

• Conjunctions

• Adverbs

• Inactive Particles

• Ablative Particles

• Vocative Particles

• Exclamatory Style

• Praise & Disparagement

• Derived Nouns

• Verbal Nouns

• Active Participles

• Passive Participles

• Participle-like Adjectives

• Comparatives

• Place-nouns

• Time-nouns

• Tool-nouns

• Attributives

• Diminutives

• Vocabulary

• Dialects

• Survival Phrases

 

Add your comments to the Guestbook


View the Guestbook

 

IMPORTANT NOTICE

I have nothing to do with the adds that appear on this website (including the add on top which says "Arabic Code." This add is NOT mine). I don't sell books, courses, lessons, or anything.

This website is being renovated and transferred to another domain. I welcome your comments and suggestions. Please help me by reporting typos, mistakes, broken links, unclear parts, etc.

© Hani Deek 2005-2015. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this website's content without express and written permission from this website’s author is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Hani Deek with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

This site may not show well with browsers other than Microsoft Internet Explorer (e.g Firefox). If you are having problems with viewing the site, please consider trying another browser. Sorry about that.

 


 

Case Signs

 

The three grammatical cases in Arabic are:

  • Nominative (subject) = 'ar-raf"(u) الرَّفْعُ

  • Accusative = 'an-nasb(u) النَّصْبُ

  • Genitive = 'al-jarr(u) الْجَرُّ

You may click here for definitions of the grammatical cases.

 

The possible case-signs عَلامَاْتُ الإِعْرَاْبِ for singular nouns collectively are:

Case-Signs for Singular Nouns

عَلامَاْتُ الإِعْرَاْبِ لِلأَسْمَاْءِ الْمُفْرَدَةِ

Apparent Short U

damma(tun) zaahira(tun)

ضَمَّةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

Apparent Short A

fatha(tun) zaahira(tun)

فَتْحَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

Apparent Short I

kasra(tun) zaahira(tun)

كَسْرَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

Estimated Short U

damma(tun) muqaddara(tun)

ضَمَّةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

Estimated Short A

fatha(tun) muqaddara(tun)

فَتْحَةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

Estimated Short I

kasra(tun) muqaddara(tun)

كَسْرَةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

N.B. the word "estimated" is used a lot in Arabic grammar. They mean by it "supposed" or "assumed."

 

 

1. Regular Nouns

 

I. Singular Nouns

 

الْوَلَدُ

the child (masc.)

 

 

Case-Sign

Case

Noun

Apparent Short U

ضَمَّةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

'al-walad(u) الْوَلَدُ
Apparent Short A

فَتْحَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

'al-walad(a) الْوَلَدَ
Apparent Short I

كَسْرَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

'al-walad(i) الْوَلَدِ

 

 

 

 

II. Dual Nouns

 

الْوَلَدَاْنِ

the two children (masc.)

 

 

Case-sign

Case

Noun

The 'alif

الأَلِفُ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

'al-waladaan(i) الْوَلَدَاْنِ

The yaa'<

الْيَاْءُ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

'al-waladayn(i) الْوَلَدَيْنِ

The yaa'<

الْيَاْءُ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

'al-waladayn(i) الْوَلَدَيْنِ

The noon ن in the dual ending is not part of the case-sign but rather is the dual form of Noonation.

 

 

III. Masculine Plural Nouns

 

الْمُعَلِّمُوْنَ

the teachers (masc.)

 

 

Case-Sign

Case

Noun

The waaw

الْوَاْوُ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

'al-mu"allimoon(a) الْمُعَلِّمُوْنَ

The yaa'<

الْيَاْءُ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

'al-mu"allimeen(a) الْمُعَلِّمِيْنَ

The yaa'<

الْيَاْءُ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

'al-mu"allimeen(a) الْمُعَلِّمِيْنَ

The noon ن in the masculine plural ending is not part of the case-sign but rather is the masculine plural form of Noonation.

 

 

IV. Feminine Plural Nouns

 

الْمُعَلِّمَاْتُ

the teachers (fem.)

 

Case-Sign

Case

Noun

Apparent Short U

ضَمَّةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

'al-mu"allimaat(u) الْمُعَلِّمَاْتُ
Apparent Short I

كَسْرَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

'al-mu"allimaat(i) الْمُعَلِّمَاْتِ
Apparent Short I

كَسْرَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

'al-mu"allimaat(i) الْمُعَلِّمَاْتِ

 

 

V. Irregular Plural Nouns

We mentioned before that all irregular plural nouns are treated grammatically as if they were singular nouns when it comes to case declension, thus they will take the case-signs of singular nouns.

الأَوْلادُ

the children (masc.)

 

 

 

Case-Sign

Case

Noun

Apparent Short U

ضَمَّةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

'al-'awlaad(u)

الأَوْلادُ

Apparent Short A

فَتْحَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

'al-'awlaad(a)

الأَوْلادَ

Apparent Short I

كَسْرَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

'al-'awlaad(i)

الأَوْلادِ

 

 

 

 

2. Irregular Nouns

(For definitions of irregular noun types, you may click here)

 

I. Shortened Nouns

الْعَصَاْ

the stick, the cane (fem.)

 

 

Case-Sign

Case

Noun

Estimated Short U

ضَمَّةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

'al-"asaa الْعَصَاْ

Estimated Short A

فَتْحَةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

'al-"asaa الْعَصَاْ

Estimated Short I

كَسْرَةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

'al-"asaa الْعَصَاْ

 

 

II. Extended Nouns

الْمَاْءُ

the water (masc.)

 

 

Case-Sign

Case

Noun

Apparent Short U

ضَمَّةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

'al-maa'(u) الْمَاْءُ
Apparent Short A

فَتْحَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

'al-maa'(a) الْمَاْءَ
Apparent Short I

كَسْرَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

'al-maa'(i) الْمَاْءِ

 

 

III. Defective Nouns

الْقَاْضِيْ

the judge (masc.)

 

 

Case-Sign

Case

Noun

Estimated Short U

ضَمَّةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

'al-qaadee الْقَاْضِيْ
Apparent Short A

فَتْحَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

'al-qaadiy(a) الْقَاْضِيَ

Estimated Short I

كَسْرَةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

'al-qaadee الْقَاْضِيْ

 

 

 

Case-Endings of Nouns in the Definite State

Noun Nominative Accusative Genitive
R

E

G

U

L

A

R

Singular

-u

-a -i
Dual -aan -ayn -ayn
Masculine Plural -oon -een -een
Feminine Plural -u -i -i
Irregular Plural

-u

-a -i
 

I

R

R

E

G

U

L

A

R

 

Shortened --- --- ---
Extended

-u

-a -i
Defective --- -a ---

 

See here for case-endings of nouns in the indefinite state.

See here for case-endings of nouns in the construct state.

 

There are two categories of words in Arabic that take case-signs other than what has been mentioned on this page: