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  Arabic Online

ARABIC ONLINE

        اللّغة العربيّة    

Arabic Online

 

• Welcome!

• Varieties of Arabic

• Alphabet

• Pronunciation
• Words
• Vowels
• Reading out

• Syllables and stress

• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Roots

• Sibawayh's phonology

• Historical phonology

• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

• Dual Nouns

• Plural Nouns EDITED

• Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

• Feminine Plural Nouns

• Irregular Plural Nouns
• Articles

• Case Inflection

• Case Endings

• The Six Nouns

• Noonation

• Adjectives

• Genitive Construction

• Am/Is/Are Sentences

• Verbs

• Irregular Verbs

• Verb Forms

• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

• Irregular Perfective Conjugation

• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

• Moods

• Subjunctive Mood

• Jussive Mood

• Mood Signs

• Energetic Mood

• Imperative Mood

• Passive Voice

• Passive Perfective Verbs

• Passive Imperfective Verbs

• Passive of Irregular Verbs

• Subject Pronouns

• Object Pronouns

• Demonstratives

• Relative Pronouns

• Sentences

• To Have

• Incomplete Verbs

• Frozen Verbs

• Verb-Like Particles

• Negation

• Present Negative

• Past Negative

• Future Negative

• Negation+Exclusion Style

• Interrogation

• Yes/No Questions

• Interrogative Pronouns

• Polite Request

• Introductory Particles

• Infinitival/Indefinite maa

• Prepositions

• Conjunctions

• Adverbs

• Inactive Particles

• Ablative Particles

• Vocative Particles

• Exclamatory Style

• Praise & Disparagement

• Derived Nouns

• Verbal Nouns

• Active Participles

• Passive Participles

• Participle-like Adjectives

• Comparatives

• Place-nouns

• Time-nouns

• Tool-nouns

• Attributives

• Diminutives

• Vocabulary

• Dialects

• Survival Phrases

 

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Noonation (continued)

 

Irregular nouns

(For definitions of irregular noun types, you may click here)

 

Shortened Nouns

Shortened nouns are nouns that end with a shortened 'alif   ـا / ـى  .

These nouns will always take the -an tanween تَنْوِيْنُ الْفَتْحِ and in all cases. When adding the tanween to a shortened noun, it will be placed on the litter preceding the final shortened 'alif not on the 'alif itself.

فَتًىْ

a lad (masc.)

 

 

Case-Sign

Case

Noun

Estimated Short U

ضَمَّةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

fata(n) فَتًىْ

Estimated Short A

فَتْحَةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

fata(n)

فَتًىْ

Estimated Short I

كَسْرَةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

fata(n)

فَتًىْ

*The word "estimated" means to Arabic grammarians "assumed" or "supposed."

 

 

Extended Nouns

Extended nouns are nouns that end with a long vowel 'alif  aa  ـا  that is followed by a consonant 'alif  ء (hamza(t)).

Extended nouns will take tanween just like regular nouns, except that when we add the -an tanween we will not add an extended 'alif after it in writing. However, the pronunciation rules remain the same of those of the regular singular nouns.

مَاْءٌ

a water (masc.)

 

 

Case-Sign

Case

Noun

Apparent Short U

ضَمَّةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

maa'(un) مَاْءٌ
Apparent Short A

فَتْحَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

maa'a(n) مَاْءً
Apparent Short I

كَسْرَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

maa'(in) مَاْءٍ

*There is no distinction in Arabic when it comes to countable and uncountable singular nouns. They are all singular nouns.

 

Defective Nouns

Defective nouns are nouns that end with a long vowel -ee ـِيْ  which belongs to the root.

When adding tanween to a defective noun, the final -ee must be deleted in both writing and pronunciation, except in the nasb (accusative) case. The added tanween will be always -in تَنْوِيْنُ الْكَسْرِ  except in, also, the nasb case.

 

قَاْضٍ

 

a judge (masc.)

 

 

Case-Sign

Case

Noun

Estimated Short U

ضَمَّةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

'ar-raf"(u)

الْرَّفْعُ

qaad(in) قَاْضٍ
Apparent Short A

فَتْحَةٌ ظَاْهِرَةٌ

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

qaadiya(n) قَاْضِيًا

Estimated Short I

كَسْرَةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

qaad(in) قَاْضٍ

 

 

Case-Endings of Nouns in the Indefinite State

Noun

Nominative

Accusative

Genitive

R

E

G

U

L

A

R

Singular

-un

-an

-in

Dual

-aan

-ayn

-ayn

Masculine Plural

-oon

-een

-een

Feminine Plural

-un

-in

-in

Irregular Plural

-un

-an

-in

 

I

R

R

E

G

U

L

A

R

 

Shortened

-n

-n

-n

Extended

-un

-an

-in

Defective

-in

-an

-in

 

 

 

 When to Use Noonation?

 

Tanween must be added to every indefinite noun الْنَّكِرَةُ . The only definite nouns that will take tanween are first names of people and some rare names of places, rivers etc.

The definite nouns الْمَعْرِفَة  in Arabic are:

The ن of the dual and muscular plural nouns will be always there except in one condition: when the noun is the first part of a genitive construction. In this case the noon will be deleted just like any tanween.

There is a category of irregular nouns that is called the "forbidden to noonation" الْمَمْنُوْعُ مِنَ الْصَّرْفِ. These nouns will not take tanween even if they were indefinite.

Most of names of places and rivers, etc. are forbidden to noonation. Any proper name of non-Arabic origin that have more than three letters is forbidden to noonation. Proper names of unknown Arabic origins include most of the names of towns and geographical features even in Arabia itself. This is why we said that noonation usually happens only with first names of people but not with other proper names (in general), because most of those are forbidden to noonation. Of course, first names have to be of a known Arabic origin too in order to be noonated.

 

 

Exercise 1

Can you transform the following nouns from the nominative definite state into the nominative indefinite state?

 

The apple (sing. fem.)

التُّفَّاْحَةُ

The observers (plu. masc.)

الْمُرَاْقِبُوْنَ

The two students (dual masc.)

الطَّاْلِبَاْنِ

The friends (plu. masc.)

الأَصْدِقَاْءُ

The colleagues (plu. fem.)

الزَّمِيْلاتُ

The forces (plu. fem.)

الْقِوَىْ

The states/countries (plu. fem.)

الْدُوَلُ

The snakes (plu. fem.)

الأَفَاْعِيْ

 

 

Answers

 

An apple (sing. fem.)

تُفَّاْحَةٌ

Observers (plu. masc.)

مُرَاْقِبُوْنَ

Two students (dual masc.)

طَاْلِبَاْنِ

Friends (plu. masc.)

أَصْدِقَاْءٌ

Colleagues (plu. fem.)

زَمِيْلاتٌ

Forces (plu. fem.)

قِوًىْ

 States/countries (plu. fem.)

دُوَلٌ

Snakes (plu. fem.)

أَفَاْعٍ

 

 

Exercise 2

Can you transform the following indefinite nouns from the genitive into the accusative case?

A kiss (sing. fem.)

قُبْلَةٍ

Assistants (plu. masc.)

مُسَاْعِدِيْنَ

Two signs (dual fem.)

عَلامَتَيْنِ

Relatives (plu. masc.)

أَقْرِبَاْءٍ

Young women (plu. fem.)

فَتَيَاَتٍ

Dolls (plu. fem.)

دُمًىْ

 Books (plu. fem.)

كُتُبٍ

A high (sing. masc. adj.)

عَاْلٍ

 

 

Answers

 

A kiss (sing. fem.)

قُبْلَةً

Assistants (plu. masc.)

مُسَاْعِدِيْنَ

Two signs (dual fem.)

عَلامَتَيْنِ

Relatives (plu. masc.)

أَقْرِبَاْءً

Young women (plu. fem.)

فَتَيَاَتٍ

Dolls (plu. fem.)

دُمًىْ

 Books (plu. fem.)

كُتُبًاْ

A high (sing. masc. adj.)

عَاْلِيًاْ

 

 

 

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