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  Arabic Online

ARABIC ONLINE

        اللّغة العربيّة    

Arabic Online

 

• Welcome!

• Varieties of Arabic

• Alphabet

• Pronunciation
• Words
• Vowels
• Reading out

• Syllables

• Stress

• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Roots

• Sibawayh's phonology

• Historical phonology

• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

• Dual Nouns

• Plural Nouns EDITED

• Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

• Feminine Plural Nouns

• Irregular Plural Nouns
• Articles

• Case Inflection

• Case Endings

• The Six Nouns

• Noonation

• Adjectives

• Genitive Construction

• Am/Is/Are Sentences

• Verbs

• Irregular Verbs

• Verb Forms

• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

• Irregular Perfective Conjugation

• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

• Moods

• Subjunctive Mood

• Jussive Mood

• Mood Signs

• Energetic Mood

• Imperative Mood

• Passive Voice

• Passive Perfective Verbs

• Passive Imperfective Verbs

• Passive of Irregular Verbs

• Subject Pronouns

• Object Pronouns

• Demonstratives

• Relative Pronouns

• Sentences

• To Have

• Incomplete Verbs

• Frozen Verbs

• Verb-Like Particles

• Negation

• Present Negative

• Past Negative

• Future Negative

• Negation+Exclusion Style

• Interrogation

• Yes/No Questions

• Interrogative Pronouns

• Polite Request

• Introductory Particles

• Infinitival/Indefinite maa

• Prepositions

• Conjunctions

• Adverbs

• Inactive Particles

• Ablative Particles

• Vocative Particles

• Exclamatory Style

• Praise & Disparagement

• Derived Nouns

• Verbal Nouns

• Active Participles

• Passive Participles

• Participle-like Adjectives

• Comparatives

• Place-nouns

• Time-nouns

• Tool-nouns

• Attributives

• Diminutives

• Vocabulary

• Dialects

• Survival Phrases

 

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Writing of Letter 'alif

 

The first letter in the Arabic alphabet, 'alif, is a weak letter that has two forms, a consonant form or hamza(t) ء '  and a vowel form ا  aa (a long A or an extended 'alif ).

 

Vowel 'alif

The vowel form can appear at the middle or the end of words, but never at the beginning. It can assume the following forms:

Joining Figures of Letter ا

 (weak or extended 'alif)

End

Middle

Beginning

ـا

ـا  

----

ـى

 

Choosing Between the Two Forms at the End of the Word

I. Triliteral Nouns & Verbs

If a three-lettered noun in Arabic ends with a long vowel 'alif, that noun will be an irregular noun called a Shortened Noun. If a three-lettered verb in Arabic ends with a long vowel 'alif, that verb will be an irregular verb called a Defective Verb.

The common point between those two types of words is that the long vowel 'alif at the end of any triliteral noun or verb in Arabic is not an original letter or a root letter, rather it always substitutes for a different week letter.

The form  ـا  substitutes for a waaw ـو .

The form  ـى  substitutes for a yaa'< ـي .

 

Deciding which form to use requires knowing the root of the word. Natives and people with good knowledge of the language can usually guess the original vowel from other derivatives of the same root, like the infinitive and the imperfective verb when dealing with defective verbs, and the dual and plural when dealing with singular shortened nouns.

Triliteral Shortened Nouns

Root

Original Version

(Not Used)

Actual Version

" S W

ع ص و

عَصَوٌ

عَصًاْ

N D Y

ن د ي

نَدَيٌ

نَدًىْ

 

Triliteral Defective Verbs

Root

Original Version

(Not Used)

Actual Version

D " W

د ع و

دَعَوَ

دَعَاْ

R M Y

ر م ي

رَمَيَ

رَمَىْ

 

II. Nouns & Verbs with More Than Three Letters

Those will always end with an 'alif of the type: ـى .

 

Proper name (female)

لَيْلَىْ

(He) likes

يَهْوَىْ

Hospital (masc.)

مُسْتَشْفَىْ

(He) had (S.O) to stay

اِسْتَبْقَىْ

 

Such 'alif may be an original root letter, but it also may be not.

The exception is when the 'alif is preceded by a yaa'<. In that case, it will take the other form.

World (fem.)

دُنْيَاْ

Chandelier (fem.)

ثُرَيَّاْ

Mirrors (sing. is fem.)

مَرَاْيَاْ

 

However, the proper name  يَحْيَىْwill irregularly take the first form in order to be distinguished from the verb that looks like it.

Proper name (male)

  يَحْيَىْ

(He) lives

يَحْيَاْ

 

Words of foreign origin that end with with long vowel 'alif's usually take the form: ـا .

 

Proper name (male)

حَنَّاْ

Proper name (female)

كْلودْيَاْ

Cinema (fem.)

سِينمَاْ

France (fem.)

فَرَنْسَاْ

Italy (fem.)

إِيْطَاْلْيَاْ

Asia (fem.)

آسْيَاْ

Geography (fem.)

جُغْرَاْفْيَاْ

 

However, there are few foreign words that end with ـى .

 

 Music (fem.)

مُوْسِيْقَىْ

Moses

مُوْسَىْ

Jesus

عِيْسَىْ

Matthew

مَتَّىْ

Bukhara (fem.)

(city in Uzbekistan)

بُخَاْرَىْ

Title of ancient Persian shahs (masc.)

كِسْرَىْ

 

 

III. Particles

Particles (rootless words) that end with a long vowel 'alif are not few. As a rule, all such particles will end with the form ـا  except for the following four particles:

 

To

إِلَىْ

On

عَلَىْ

Yes

 

 (to a negative question)

بَلَىْ

Until / Even

حَتَّىْ

 

 

 

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