Make your own free website on Tripod.com
  Arabic Online

ARABIC ONLINE

        اللّغة العربيّة     >

Arabic Online

 

• Welcome!

• Varieties of Arabic

• Alphabet

• Pronunciation
• Words
• Vowels
• Reading out

• Syllables

• Stress

• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Roots

• Sibawayh's phonology

• Historical phonology

• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

• Dual Nouns

• Plural Nouns EDITED

• Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

• Feminine Plural Nouns

• Irregular Plural Nouns
• Articles

• Case Inflection

• Case Endings

• The Six Nouns

• Noonation

• Adjectives

• Genitive Construction

• Am/Is/Are Sentences

• Verbs

• Irregular Verbs

• Verb Forms

• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

• Irregular Perfective Conjugation

• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

• Moods

• Subjunctive Mood

• Jussive Mood

• Mood Signs

• Energetic Mood

• Imperative Mood

• Passive Voice

• Passive Perfective Verbs

• Passive Imperfective Verbs

• Passive of Irregular Verbs

• Subject Pronouns

• Object Pronouns

• Demonstratives

• Relative Pronouns

• Sentences

• To Have

• Incomplete Verbs

• Frozen Verbs

• Verb-Like Particles

• Negation

• Present Negative

• Past Negative

• Future Negative

• Negation+Exclusion Style

• Interrogation

• Yes/No Questions

• Interrogative Pronouns

• Polite Request

• Introductory Particles

• Infinitival/Indefinite maa

• Prepositions

• Conjunctions

• Adverbs

• Inactive Particles

• Ablative Particles

• Vocative Particles

• Exclamatory Style

• Praise & Disparagement

• Derived Nouns

• Verbal Nouns

• Active Participles

• Passive Participles

• Participle-like Adjectives

• Comparatives

• Place-nouns

• Time-nouns

• Tool-nouns

• Attributives

• Diminutives

• Vocabulary

• Dialects

• Survival Phrases

 

Add your comments to the Guestbook


View the Guestbook

 

IMPORTANT NOTICE

I have nothing to do with the adds that appear on this website (including the add on top which says "Arabic Code." This add is NOT mine). I don't sell books, courses, lessons, or anything.

This website is being transferred to another domain.

© Hani Deek 2005-2016. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this website's content without express and written permission from this website’s author is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Hani Deek with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

This site may not show well with browsers other than Microsoft Internet Explorer (e.g Firefox). If you are having problems with viewing the site, please consider trying another browser. Sorry about that.

 


 

Writing of Letter 'alif (continued)

Consonant 'alif

The hamza(t) الْهَمْزَةُ is the consonant form of 'alif.  It is a "glottal stop"  that can appear anywhere in Arabic words, whether at the beginning, middle, or end of the word.

 

Joining Figures of Letter ء

 (hamza(t) / consonant 'alif)

End

Middle

Beginning

ـأ

ـأ

أ

ـؤ

ـؤ

إ

ـئ

ـئـ

ا

ء

ء

 

 

 

Choosing Between the Forms at the Beginning of the Word

The regular form for hamza(t) is the one with the sign ء showing.

The variations depend on the following vowel:

 

'a

With a short A

أَ

'u

With a short U

أُ

'i

With a short I

إِ

'aa

With a long A

آ

'ee

With a long I

إي

'oo

With a long U

أو

'<

With no vowel

أْ

 

This regular hamza(t) at the beginning of a word is called the "disconnecting hamza(t)" هَمْزَةُ القَطْعِ. This is often an original letter and it must be pronounced always.

The other type of hamza(t) which lacks the sign  ءis called the "connecting hamza(t)" هَمْزَةُ الوَصْلِ . That one is never an original letter and it is only pronounced when it is the first thing that comes out of the mouth. Arabs added this kind of hamza(t) to some words for merely phonological reasons, namely because they hated to start talking by pronouncing a "still" letter, that is, a consonant that is not followed by any vowel. The connecting hamza(t) is somewhat similar to the French "liaison."

The connecting hamza(t) has only one figure and it usually appears in the following places:

I. Verbs

  • The imperative of triliteral perfective verbs which don't begin with a hamza(t).

 

(You) do !

اِفْعَلْ

(You) write !

اُكْتُبْ

(You) know !

اِعْلَمْ

 

  • The perfective, imperative, and infinitive of five-lettered verbs.

 

(He) benefited

اِنْتَفَعَ

(You) benefit !

اِنْتَفِعْ

 Benefiting

اِنْتِفَاْعٌ

 

  • The perfective, imperative, and infinitive of six-lettered verbs.

 

(He) used

اِسْتَعْمَلَ

(You) use !

اِسْتَعْمِلْ

 Using

اِسْتِعْمَاْلٌ

 

II. Nouns

It appears in front of some nouns. Examples of commonly used ones are:

 

اِسْمَاْنِ

اِسْمٌ

two names (masc.) a name (masc.)

اِبْنَاْنِ

اِبْنٌ

two sons (masc.) a son (masc.)

اِبْنَتَاْنِ

اِبْنَةٌ

two daughters (masc.) a daughter (masc.)

اِمْرُؤَاْنِ

اِمْرُؤٌ

two men (masc.) a man (masc.)

اِمْرَأَتَاْنِ

اِمْرَأَةٌ

two women (fem.) a woman (fem.)

 

Two (masc.)

اِثْنَاْنِ

Two (fem.)

اِثْنَتَاْنِ

 

III. Particles

The connecting hamza(t) appears only in the definite article.

 

The

اَلْـ

 

 

 

 

Previous  Next