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The Six Nouns

 

The Six Nouns  الأَسْمَاْءُ الْسِّتَةُ  in Arabic are six singular masculine nouns that take different case-signs from the regular case-signs for singular nouns when they are the first part of a genitive construction, or in what is called the "construct state."

 

The six nouns are the following, they are in the indefinite state:

The Six Nouns

الأَسْمَاْءُ الْسِّتَةُ

A father

'ab(un)

أَبٌ

A brother

'akh(un)

أَخٌ

A father-in-law

ham(un)

حَمٌ

A mouth

fam(un)

فَمٌ

A thing

han(un)

هَنٌ

(The) possessor (of)

thoo

ذُوْ

The last noun, thoo, was not in the indefinite state but rather in the construct state. This noun cannot exist in other state than this one.

The six nouns will take regular case-signs (apparent short U, apparent short A, and apparent short I) except when they are the first part of a genitive construction, or in Arabic, when they are in the state of "addition" الإِضَاْفَةُ .

When the Six Nouns form the first part of a genitive construction, or are in the construct state, they will have the following irregular case signs:

Case-Signs for the Six Nouns in the Construct State

Case

Case-Sign

Nominative

'ar-raf"(u)

الرَّفْعُ

ـُوْ

الْوَاوُ

-oo

'al-waaw(u)

Accusative

'an-nasb(u)

الْنَّصْبُ

ـَاْ

الأَلِفُ

-aa

'al-'alif(u)

Genitive

'al-jarr(u)

الْجَرُّ

ـِيْ

الْيَاْءُ

-ee 'al-yaa'(u)

 

 

1. 'ar-raf"(u) الرَّفْعُ  =  Nominative (subject)

 

The Six Nouns in the Nominative Construct State

(The) father (of)

'aboo

أَبُوْ

(The) brother (of)

'akhoo

أَخُوْ

(The) father-in-law (of)

hamoo

حَمُوْ

(The) mouth (of)

foo

فُوْ

(The) thing (of)

hanoo

هَنُوْ

(The) possessor (of)

thoo

ذُوْ

 

 

2. 'an-nasb(u) النَّصْبُ =  Accusative

 

The Six Nouns in the Accusative Construct State

(The) father (of)

'abaa

أَبَاْ

(The) brother (of)

'akhaa

أَخَاْ

(The) father-in-law (of)

hamaa

حَمَاْ

(The) mouth (of)

faa

فَاْ

(The) thing (of)

hanaa

هَنَاْ

(The) possessor (of)

thaa

ذَاْ

 

 

3.'al-jarr(u) الْجَرُّ = Genitive

 

The Six Nouns in the Genitive Construct State

(The) father (of)

'abee

أَبِيْ

(The) brother (of)

'akhee

أَخِيْ

(The) father-in-law (of)

hamee

حَمِيْ

(The) mouth (of)

fee

فِيْ

(The) thing (of)

hanee

هَنِيْ

(The) possessor (of)

thee

ذِيْ

 

 

Notes

The irregular case signs of the six nouns should not be confused with regular case signs in the following cases:

 

  • If the nouns were not singular.

Examples:

Meaning

Case

Case-Sign

Word

(The) two fathers (of)

Nominative

ـَاْ

أَبَوَاْ

 -aa

'abawaa

(The) two brothers (of)

Accusative

Genitive

ـَيْ

أَخَوَيْ

-ay

'akhaway

(The) possessors (of)

Nominative

ـُوْ

ذَوُوْا

-oo

thawoo

The case signs here were those of dual and masculine plural nouns. They were NOT case signs of the six nouns, because those only appear with singular nouns.

 

  • If the nouns were "added" to the first person singular object pronoun -ee  ـِيْ .

Examples:

Meaning

Case

Case-Sign

Word

(The) fathers (of) me

My father

Nominative

Estimated

short U

أَبِيْ

 ---

'ab-ee

(The) brothers (of) me

My brother

Accusative

Estimated

short A

أَخِيْ

---

'akh-ee

(The) father-in-law (of) me

My father-in-law

Genitive

Estimated

short I

حَمِيْ

---

ham-ee

The case-signs are estimated or assumed between the attached pronoun and the letter preceding it.

 

If the noun fam(un) فَمٌ = "a mouth" retained the letter meem م , it will not have the irregular case-signs of the six nouns.

 

Meaning

Case

Case-Sign

Word

(The) mouth (of)

Nominative

Apparent short U

فَمُ

 -u

fam(u)

(The) mouth (of)

Accusative

Apparent short A

فَمَ

-a

fam(a)

(The) mouth (of)

Genitive

Apparent short I

فَمِ

-i

fam(i)

 

The word thoo ذُوْ  = "(the) possessor (of)" can exist only as a first part of a genitive construction but not as an independent word. Or, it can only exist in the construct state but not in the absolute or indefinite state.

The word han(un) هَنٌ = "a thing" is an obsolete classical word that often referred to the genitalia. This word can take regular case signs or case signs of the Six Nouns. The better ones to use with this word are the regular case signs and not the Six Noun ones.