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Meanings of Verb Forms (continued)

Triliteral Roots

 

 

Form V

 

 

Form V of Arabic Verbs

(Active Voice)

Reflexive Causative

(He) made himself do

tafa''"al(a)

tr./intr.

تَفَعَّلَ

 

This form is the reflexive of form II. It is composed of the structure of form II plus the reflexive prefix t-, hence it is called the Dt-stem.

 

The meanings of form V are simply the meanings of form II plus the word "himself."

 

Form II

Form V

Causative

(He) made do

Reflexive Causative

(He) made himself do

Transformative

(He) made be noun

(He) noun-ized

Reflexive Transformative

(He) made himself be noun

→ (He) became noun-ized

Intensive

(He) did much

Reflexive Intensive

(He) did himself much

→ (He) became done much

 

 

Examples on the first meaning:

 

Form V

Form II

ta"allam(a)

تَعَلَّمَ

"allam(a)

عَلَّمَ

(he) taught himself

(he) learned

(he) taught

ta"arraf(a)

تَعَرَّفَ

"arraf(a)

عَرَّفَ

(he) made himself know

(he) recognized (intr.)

(he) made know

tasallam(a)

تَسَلَّمَ

sallam(a)

سَلَّمَ

(he) handed himself

(he) received

(he) handed

tawassal(a)

تَوَصَّلَ

wassal(a)

وَصَّلَ

(he) delivered himself

(he) found out (intr.)

(he) delivered

tafahham(a)

تَفَهَّمَ

fahham(a)

فَهَّمَ

(he) made himself understand

(he) empathized, showed understanding

(he) made understand

ta'akhkhar(a)

تَأَخَّرَ

'akhkhar(a)

أَخَّرَ

(he) made himself late

(he) was late

(he) made late

tahawwal(a)

تَحَوَّلَ

hawwal(a)

حَوَّلَ

(he) transformed himself

(he) transformed (intr.)

(he) transformed (tr.)

tararrab(a)

تَغَرَّبَ

rarrab(a)

غَرَّبَ

(he) made himself strange(r)

(he) lived abroad

(he) made strange(r)

tanabbah(a)

تَنَبَّهَ

nabbah(a)

نَبَّهَ

(he) drew the attention of himself

(he) became alerted

(he) drew attention

 

 

Examples on the reflexive transformative meaning:

 

Form V

Form II

tanassar(a)

تَنَصَّرَ

nassar(a)

نَصَّرَ

(he) Christianized himself

(he) became Christian

(he) Christianized (tr.)

tahawwad(a)

تَهَوَّدَ

hawwad(a)

هَوَّدَ

(he) Judaized himself

(he) became Jewish

(he) Judaized (tr.)

tarayyar(a)

تَغَيَّرَ

rayyar(a)

غَيَّرَ

(he) changed himself

(he) changed (intr.)

(he) changed (tr.)

 

 

We explained that the transformative meaning of form II can be factitious. However, for this from, the factitious reflexive transformative meaning is rarely meant as one with an insincere motive (e.g. pretension). Rather, it is often meant as one in which the subject honestly tries to transform himself (a conative meaning). The insincere factitious reflexive transformative meaning is more often expressed by form VI.

 

Examples:

 

Form V

Form II

tasallam(a)

تَكَرَّمَ

karram(a)

كَرَّمَ

(he) made himself generous

{(he) sought to make himself generous}

→ (he) was kind (to do something) (intr.)

(he) dignified

(he) made generous

tashajja"(a)

تَشَجَّعَ

shajja"(a)

شَجَّعَ

(he) encouraged himself

{(he) sought to encourage himself}

→ (he) became encouraged

(he) plucked up courage

(he) encouraged

tasabbar(a)

تَصَبَّرَ

sabbar(a)

صَبَّرَ

(he) made himself patient

{(he) sought to make himself patient}

(he) made patient

tajawwa"(a)

تَجَوَّعَ

jawwa"(a)

جَوَّعَ

(he) made himself hungry

{(he) sought to make himself hungry}

(he) made hungry

 

 

Examples on the reflexive intensive meaning:

 

Form V

Form II

takassar(a)

تَكَسَّرَ

kassar(a)

كَسَّرَ

(he) smashed himself

(he) smashed (intr.)

(he) smashed (tr.)

tahattam(a)

تَحَطَّمَ

hattam(a)

حَطَّمَ

(he) smashed himself

(he) smashed (intr.)

(he) smashed (tr.)

taqatta"(a)

تَقَطَّعَ

qatta"(a)

قَطَّعَ

(he) chopped himself

(he) became chops, pieces

(he) chopped

taharraq(a)

تَحَرَّقَ

harraq(a)

حَرَّقَ

(he) burned himself much

(he) awaited eagerly

(he) burned much

 

 

 

 

Basic Meanings of Form V

Reflexive Causative

to do

(he) made himself do

to be noun

(Reflexive Transformative)

Genuine

(he) made himself be noun

→ (he) became noun

Factitious

(he) sought to be noun

 

 

Connotative Meanings of Form V

Reflexive Intensive

of character

(he) did himself forcefully

(he) became done forcefully

of duration

(he) did himself for long time

(he) became done for long time

of frequency

(he) did himself often

(he) became done often

 

 

 

Form VI

 

 

Form VI of Arabic Verbs

(Active Voice)

Reflexive of Form III

(He) made himself doing/doer

(He) made himself doing/doer prep. himself

tafaa"al(a)

tr./intr.

تَفَاْعَلَ

 

This form is the reflexive of form III. It has the prefix t- and is called the Lt-Stem.

Just like how nasty was form III, this form is also nasty. We will try to go slowly so we don't get lost.

 

Form III had the following two meanings:

Causative to be Active Participle

(He) made be doing/doer prep.

(He) made himself doing/doer prep.

 

Notice that the second meaning was already reflexive. Now let's add the word "himself" to both meanings:

(He) made himself be doing/doer

(He) made himself doing/doer prep. himself

 

The second meaning already had a word "himself" after "made," so we have to place it at the end after the preposition.

 

Now the first meaning of form III has actually become the second meaning, while the second meaning has become a new "double-reflexive" meaning. Notice that both of the new meanings lack a final preposition, this is important because form VI, contrary to form III, is mostly intransitive.

 

Form III

Form VI

Causative to be Active Participle

(He) made be doing/doer prep.

Reflexive Causative to be Active Participle

(He) became doing/doer

Reflexive Causative to be Active Participle

 (He) became doing/doer prep.

Reflexive Reflexive Causative to be Active Participle

 (He) became doing/doer prep. himself

 

These transformations are only for the general meanings and they do not mean that every specific form III verb will necessarily carry the corresponding meaning of form VI when rendered in that from. Verbs of form III and form VI can often carry identical general meanings by crisscrossing.

 

Example, the verb:

سَمَحَ

samah(a)

(he) was generous (intr.)

→ (he) allowed (intr.)

 

In a sentence:

سَمَحَ لِلرَّجُلِ

samah(a) li-r-rajul(i)

= (he) allowed for the man

Translation: he allowed the man

 

Form III:

سَاْمَحَ

saamah(a)

(he) made himself be generous with (tr.)

→ (he) forgave (tr.)

 

In a sentence:

سَاْمَحَ الرَّجُلَ

saamah(a) ('a)r-rajul(a)

= (he) forgave the man

Translation: he forgave the man

 

Form VI:

تَسَاْمَحَ

tasaamah(a)

(he) made himself be generous (intr.)

→ (he) tolerated (intr.)

 

In a sentence:

تَسَاْمَحَ مَعَ الرَّجُلِ

tasaamah(a) ma"(a) ('a)r-rajul(i)

= (he) tolerated with the man

Translation: he tolerated the man

he went easy on the man

 

Here, both the form III and form VI had the same general meaning. However, the verb of form VI certainly carries a stronger reflexive meaning because it has an additional reflexive prefix.

 

A different example:

سَأَلَ

sa'al(a)

(he) asked (tr.)

 

سَأَلَ الرَّجُلَ

sa'al(a) ('a)r-rajul(a)

= (he) asked the man

Translation: he asked the man

 

Form III:

سَاْئَلَ

saa'al(a)

(he) made himself be asking of (tr.)

→ (he) questioned, interrogated (tr.)

 

سَاْئَلَ الرَّجُلَ

saa'al(a) ('a)r-rajul(a)

= (he) interrogated the man

Translation: he interrogated the man

 

Form VI:

تَسَاْءَلَ

tasaa'al(a)

(he) made himself be asking of himself (intr.)

→ (he) wondered (intr.)

 

تَسَاْءَلَ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ

tasaa'al(a) "an(i) ('a)r-rajul(i)

= (he) wondered about the man

Translation: he wondered about the man

 

In this example, the form VI verb had a different general meaning from the from III one.

 

Those were the literal meanings. Form III had also three connotative meanings, this form too has three connotative meanings.

 

Form III

Form VI

Mutual

(initiated by one side)

(He) initiated mutual doing with

Mutual

(pure)

(He) engaged in mutual doing

Conative

(He) sought to do

Conative/Pretension

(He) sought to do

(he) he pretended to do

Intensive

(He) did much

Reflexive Intensive

(He) did himself much

(He) became done much

 

 

1) Pure Mutuality

 

The first meaning is similar to the mutual meaning of form III, but here the subject of the verb will not be indicated as the initiator of the mutual activity.

 

Examples:

 

Form VI

Form III

takaatab(a)

تَكَاْتَبَ

kaatab(a)

كَاْتَبَ

(he) became writing

{(he) exchanged writing}

(he) corresponded

(he) became writing to

{(he) initiated mutual writing with}

(he) corresponded with

taqaatal(a)

تَقَاْتَلَ

qaatal(a)

قَاْتَلَ

(he) became killing

{(he) exchanged seeking to kill with}

(he) fought (intr.)

(he) became killing of

{(he) initiated mutual seeking to kill with}

→ (he) fought (tr.)

tabaadal(a)

تَبَاْدَلَ

baadal(a)

بَاْدَلَ

(he) became changing of (things)

{(he) exchanged changing of (things)}

(he) exchanged

takes one object

(he) became changing of (things) with (someone)

{(he) initiated mutual changing of (things) with (someone)}

→ (he) exchanged with

takes two objects

ta"aanaq(a)

تَعَاْنَقَ

"aanaq(a)

عَاْنَقَ

(he) became embracing the neck

{(he) exchanged neck embracing}

(he) embraced (intr.)

(he) became embracing the neck of

{(he) initiated mutual neck embracing with}

(he) embraced (tr.)

tamaazah(a)

تَمَاْزَحَ

maazah(a)

مَاْزَحَ

(he) became joking

{(he) exchanged joking}

→ (he) exchanged joking

(he) became joking with

{(he) sought to joke with}

→ (he) joked with

talaataf(a)

تَلاطَفَ

laataf(a)

لاطَفَ

(he) became gentle

{(he) exchanged being gentle}

(he) became gentle with

{(he) sought to be gentle with}

→ (he) was gentle with

ta'aamar(a)

تَآمَرَ

'aamar(a)

آمَرَ

(he) became talking

{(he) exchanged talking}

→ (he) conspired (intr.)

(he) became talking with

{(he) initiated mutual talking with}

→ (he) consulted (tr.)

tanaaza"(a)

تَنَاْزَعَ

naaza"(a)

نَاْزَعَ

(he) became plucking of (something)

{(he) exchanged seeking to pluck (something)}

takes one object

(he) became plucking of (something) with (someone)

{(he) initiated mutual seeking to pluck (something) with (someone)}

→ (he) disputed over

takes two objects

taraaqas(a)

تَعَاْوَنَ

raaqas(a)

عَاْوَنَ

(he) became assisting

{(he) exchanged assisting}

→ (he) assisted (intr.)

(he) became assisting of

{(he) sought to assist}

→ (he) assisted

tanaaqash(a)

تَنَاْقَشَ

naaqash(a)

نَاْقَشَ

(he) became extracting of (something)

{(he) exchanged extracting of (something)}

→ (he) discussed

takes one object

(he) became extracting of (something) with (someone)

{(he) initiated mutual extracting of (something) with (someone)}

→ (he) discussed

takes two objects

ta"aamal(a)

تَعَاْمَلَ

"aamal(a)

عَاْمَلَ

(he) became working

{(he) exchanged working}

= (he) worked

→ (he) treated, behaved toward

(he) became working with

{(he) initiated mutual working with}

= (he) worked with

→ (he) treated, behaved toward

tahaawar(a)

تَحَاْوَرَ

haawar(a)

حَاْوَرَ

(he) became going back

{(he) exchanged going back}

→ (he) conversed

(he) became going back with

{(he) initiated mutual going back with}

→ (he) conversed with

taraashaq(a)

تَرَاْشَقَ

raashaq(a)

رَاْشَقَ

(he) became flinging

{(he) exchanged flinging}

(he) became flinging at

{(he) initiated mutual flinging with}

tahaarab(a)

تَحَاْرَبَ

haarab(a)

حَاْرَبَ

(he) became warring

{(he) exchanged war}

(he) became warring with

{(he) initiated war with}

 

 

2) Factitious Reflexive

 

We showed before that the conative meaning of form III can be understood as a factitious reflexive meaning but without bad intensions. Here, the meaning will remain a factitious reflexive, but the will behind it can be either sincere or insincere.

 

When the will behind the factitious reflexive meaning is sincere, it will be a conative meaning like form III's.

Conative

 

(He) made himself be doing/doer

(he) sought to do

 

Examples:

 

Form VI

Form I

tajaahal(a)

تَجَاْهَلَ

jahil(a)

جَهِلَ

(he) made himself not know

{(he) sought to not know}

→ (he) ignored

(he) did not know

taraafal(a)

تَغَاْفَلَ

rafal(a)

غَفَلَ

(he) made himself inattentive

{(he) sought to be inattentive}

→ (he) was inattentive

(he) was inattentive

takaasal(a)

تَكَاْسَلَ

kasil(a)

كَسِلَ

(he) made himself be/become lazy

{(he) sought to be/become lazy}

→ (he) was/became lazy

(he) was/became lazy

tasaahal(a)

تَسَاْهَلَ

sahul(a)

سَهُلَ

(he) made himself be/become easy

{(he) sought to be/become easy}

→ (he) went easy (on somebody)

(he) was/became easy

 

 

When the will behind the factitious reflexive meaning is insincere, it will become a meaning of self-faking or pretension.

 

Pretension

 

(He) made himself be doing/doer prep.

(he) pretended to do

 

Examples:

 

Form VI

Form I

tamaarad(a)

تَمَاْرَضَ

marid(a)

مَرِضَ

(he) made himself be/become sick

→ (he) pretended to be sick

(he) malingered

(he) became sick

ta"aamaa

تَعَاْمَىْ

"amiy(a)

عَمِيَ

(he) made himself be/become blind

→ (he) pretended to be blind

OR:

→ (he) turned his back on

(conative meaning)

(he) was/became blind

tanaasaa

تَنَاْسَىْ

nasiy(a)

نَسِيَ

(he) made himself forget

→ (he) pretended to forget

OR:

→ (he) ignored

(conative meaning)

(he) forgot

 

 

 

Note: Factitious Transformative Meaning

 

We have shown that the transformative meaning can often be not meant literally but figuratively or "factitiously." There are four major verb forms that are often used to express this factitious transformative meaning:

 

Forms With Factitious Transformative Meaning

Form

Literally

Figuratively

II

fa""al(a)

factitious

falsification, accusation

(bad motive)

III

faa"al(a)

reflexive factitious

conation

(sincere motive)

V

tafa''"al(a)

reflexive factitious

conation

(sincere motive)

VI

tafaa"al(a)

reflexive factitious

conation, pretension

(sincere/insincere motive)

 

 

 

3) Reflexive Intensive

 

Examples:

 

Form VI

Form III

tasaa'al(a)

تَسَاْءَلَ

saa'al(a)

سَاْءَلَ

(he) became asking of himself

{(he) asked himself much}

→ (he) wondered

 (he) became asking of

{(he) asked much}

→ (he) interrogated

tazaayad(a)

تَزَاْيَدَ

zaayad(a)

زَاْيَدَ

 (he) became increasing of himself

(he) increased more and more

 (he) became increasing with

{(he) initiated mutual increasing with (somebody)}

→ (he) bid more than (somebody) (at an auction)

tanaamaa

تَنَاْمَىْ

naamaa

نَاْمَىْ

 (he) became growing of himself

(he) grew more and more

 

 (he) became growing of

{(he) grew (something) much}

takaathar(a)

تَكَاْثَرَ

kaathar(a)

كَاْثَرَ

 (he) became increasing of himself

→ (he) increased more and more

→ (he) reproduced (intr.)

 (he) became increasing of/with

{(he) increased much}

{(he) initiated mutual increasing with}

→ (he) increased (something) much

→ (he) increased more than (somebody)

 

 

Finally, some form VI verbs without a specific connotative meaning:

 

Form VI

Form III

taraaqas(a)

تَرَاْقَصَ

raaqas(a)

رَاْقَصَ

(he) became dancing

→ (he) shook, trembled

(he) became dancing with

{(he) initiated mutual dancing with}

→ (he) danced with

takhaathal(a)

تَخَاْذَلَ

khaathal(a)

خَاْذَلَ

(he) became letting down

→ (he) didn't do (what he was supposed to do) (intr.)

(he) became letting down

→ (he) let down

tadaa"af(a)

تَضَاْعَفَ

daa"af(a)

ضَاْعَفَ

(he) became multiplying/doubling of himself

→ (he) multiplied, doubled (intr.)

(he) became multiplying/doubling of

→ (he) multiplied, doubled (tr.)

 

 

Basic Meanings of Form VI

Reflexive Causative to be Active Participle

Simple

(he) made himself be doing

→ (he) became doing

(he) became (a subject) that is doing

(he) became (a subject) that does

Reflexive

(he) made himself be doing prep. himself

(he) became doing prep. himself

(he) became (a subject) that is doing prep. himself

(he) became (a subject) that does prep. himself

 

 

Connotative Meanings of Form VI

Mutual

(pure)

(he) engaged in mutual doing

Conative

(he) sought to do

factitious reflexive transformative

Pretension

(he) pretended to do

factitious reflexive transformative

Reflexive Intensive

(he) did himself much

 

 

 

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