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Meanings of Verb Forms (continued)

Triliteral Roots

 

Form VIII

 

Form VIII of Arabic Verbs

(Active Voice)

Reflexive

(He) did himself

'ifta"al(a)

tr./intr.

اِفْتَعَلَ

Reflexive Causative

(He) made himself do

 

This form is a reflexive of form I. The affix -t- appears in other forms as well, so this form is called the Gt-stem. The -t- means basically "himself." In this form, it is infixed after the first root letter, probably due to an ancient phonological evolution.

 

Like form VII, this form has two sub-meanings for the reflexive, the simple reflexive and the reflexive causative. However, contrary to form VII, this form will mostly have the second meaning, the reflexive causative, and unlike form VII, this meaning here won't be related only to intransitive form I verbs.

 

Form VII

(N-Stem)

Form VIII

(Gt-Stem)

Reflexive

(He) did himself

Nearly always

Reflexive

 (He) did himself

Less frequent

Reflexive Causative

(He) made himself do

Very rare, with intransitive form I verbs

Reflexive Causative

(He) made himself do

Common, with both transitive & intransitive form I verbs

 

 

-t- vs. -n-

 

Unlike the -n- affix, the -t- affix in formal Arabic indicates a powerful reflexive action and cannot be reduced to a passive meaning "(he) was/became done." Although both share a similar meaning that indicates an action directed towards the subject of the verb, the -t- affix indicates a stronger role of the subject as a performer of the action, or it indicates more effort performed by the agent.

 

Form VII 'infa"al(a)

(he) did himself

(he) was/became done

Form VIII

'ifta"al(a)

(he) did himself

 

This strong role of the subject further extends itself and turns into a reflexive causative meaning in many form VIII verbs. This happens especially with verbs that also have form VII versions.

 

'ifta"al(a)

(He) made himself do

 

 

Example, the verb:

 

كَشَفَ

 

kashaf(a)

 

(he) uncovered

 

Form VII

(N-Stem)

Form VIII

(Gt-Stem)

اِنْكَشَفَ اِكْتَشَفَ

'inkashaf(a)

'iktashaf(a)

(he) uncovered himself

→ (he) was/became uncovered

 (he) made himself uncover

→ (he) discovered

 

Both verbs originally had reflexive meanings, but one of them was too weak so it was reduced to a passive meaning, whereas the other was too strong so it evolved into a reflexive causative meaning.

 

Note that in classical south Arabian dialects the -t- affix apparently did not have such a strong meaning so its meaning evolved into a passive one as well. This shows today mostly in Egyptian Arabic which have strong Yemeni roots.

 

Another example:

 

فَعَلَ

 

fa"al(a)

 

(he) did

 

Form VII

(N-Stem)

Form VIII

(Gt-Stem)

اِنْفَعَلَ

اِفْتَعَلَ

'infa"al(a)

'ifta"al(a)

(he) did himself

→ (he) worked himself up

→ (he) was/became worked up

 (he) made himself do

→ (he) incited (something)

(he) provoked (something)

 

*Note: it is true that the root f " l = "do" is used for modeling the different structures, but this root has its own life too.

 

 

Meanings of Form VIII

 

1) Reflexive

 

The two meanings of form VIII are equally important. The first meaning, the simple reflexive, is generally similar to that of form VII. Form VII is usually used for roots denoting simple or basic actions like opening, closing, lowering, raising, cutting, breaking, writing, reading, understanding, knowing, etc. Whereas form VIII is used for basic actions as well as complicated ones.

 

Reflexive

(He) did himself

 

When a reflexive form VIII is denoting a simple action like the ones denoted by form VII, it will have a meaning similar to form VII with very little role indicated for the subject. In this case, it will be possible to translate it to "(he) was/became done."

 

On the other hand, when a reflexive form VIII is denoting a complex action that cannot be expressed by form VII, it will not mean "(he) was/became done" but rather it will carry a meaning that indicates a strong rule of the subject as a performer, or a meaning that indicates more effort of the subject.

 

Examples:

 

Form VIII

Form I

'intasar(a)

اِنْتَصَرَ

nasar(a)

نَصَرَ

(he) rendered himself victorious

→ (he) won (intr.)

(he) rendered victorious

→ (he) supported

'intahar(a)

اِنْتَحَرَ

nahar(a)

نَحَرَ

(he) slaughtered himself

→ (he) committed suicide

(he) cut the throat of, slaughtered

'iqtatal(a)

اِقْتَتَلَ

qatal(a)

قَتَلَ

(he) killed himself

→ (he) fought

(he) killed

'ibtada'(a)

اِبْتَدَأَ

bada'(a)

بَدَأَ

(he) started himself

→ (he) started (tr./intr.)

(he) started (tr./intr.)

'intahaa

اِنْتَهَىْ*

nahaa

نَهَىْ*

(he) forbade himself

→ (he) quit doing (intr.)

→ (he) finished (intr.)

(he) forbid

'ijtama"(a)

اِجْتَمَعَ

jama"(a)

جَمَعَ

(he) gathered himself

→ (he) gathered (intr.)

→ (he) met up

(he) collected, gathered (tr.)

'irtafa"(a)

اِرْتَفَعَ

rafa"(a)

رَفَعَ

(he) raised himself

→ (he) rose, ascended

(he) raised

'iktatab(a)

اِكْتَتَبَ

katab(a)

كَتَبَ

(he) wrote himself

→ (he) subscribed

(he) underwrote

(he) wrote

'ihtazz(a)

اِهْتَزَّ*

hazz(a)

هَزَّ*

(he) shook himself

→ (he) trembled

(he) shook (slightly) (tr.)

'irtajj(a)

اِرْتَجَّ*

rajj(a)

رَجَّ*

(he) shook himself

→ (he) shuddered

(he) shook (intr.)

(he) shook (violently) (tr.)

* Irregular verbs.

 

Such reflexive verbs are usually intransitive, and of course they have to be made from transitive form I verbs.

 

Note: any reflexive structure in Arabic can have a connotative "mutual" meaning if followed by the preposition "with." The meaning will be as follows:

Mutual

(He) did himself (with)

(he) initiated/engaged in mutual doing (with)

I am not going to talk about this meaning here nor with any structure (other than forms III & VI) because this meaning is too general and it is not common except with forms III & VI.

 

 

 

Rarely form VIII verbs will have a connotative meaning of "(he) sought to do himself." This is a "factitious reflexive" meaning that I am going to call the "reflexive conative" meaning.

 

Reflexive Conative

(He) did himself

(he) sought to do himself

 

Examples:

 

Form VIII

Form I

'i"tathar(a)

اِعْتَذَرَ

"athar(a)

عَذَرَ

(he) excused himself

{(he) sought to excuse himself}

→ (he) apologized

(he) excused

'ikhtadam(a)

اِحْتَمَىْ

hamaa

حَمَىْ

(he) protected himself

{(he) sought to protect himself}

= (he) protected himself

→ (he) sought protection

(he) protected

'ikhtadam(a)

اِخْتَدَمَ

khadam(a)

خَدَمَ

(he) served himself

{(he) sought to serve himself}

→ (he) appointed a servant

(he) served

 

 

 

2) Reflexive Causative

 

This meaning is common. These verbs are equally made out of transitive and intransitive form I verbs, and they can be both transitive and intransitive.

 

Many of the reflexive causative form VIII verbs will have the same or similar meanings of their form I counterparts. Such verbs often carry an emphatic meaning that stresses the part of the subject in achieving the action.

 

Reflexive Causative

(He) made himself do

→ (HE) made himself do

emphatic of the subject's role in initiating & maintaining the action

Examples:

 

Form VIII

Form I

'ijtahad(a)

اِجْتَهَدَ

jahid(a)

جَهِدَ

(he) made himself be tired

→ (he) worked hard

(he) struggled (intr.)

(he) was tired

→ (he) struggled (intr.)

'iqtadar(a)

اِقْتَدَرَ

qadar(a)

قَدَرَ

(he) made himself be able

→ (he) was able

(he) was able

(he) allotted

'iktasab(a)

اِكْتَسَبَ

kasab(a)

كَسَبَ

(he) made himself earn

→ (he) earned

(he) earned

'intazar(a)

اِنْتَظَرَ

nazar(a)

نَظَرَ

(he) made himself expect

→ (he) waited for

(he) looked

(he) expected

'i"taqad(a)

اِعْتَقَدَ

"aqad(a)

عَقَدَ

(he) made himself fasten

→ (he) believed (intr.)

(he) tied, fastened

'istama"(a)

اِسْتَمَعَ

sami"(a)

سَمِِعَ

(he) made himself hear

→ (he) listened

(he) heard

'ikhtalaf(a)

اِخْتَلَفَ

khalaf(a)

خَلَفَ

(he) made himself be away

→ (he) was/became different

→ (he) disagreed

(he) came behind

→ (he) succeeded (somebody)

→ (he) was away

'ishtarak(a)

اِشْتَرَكَ

sharik(a)

شَرِكَ

(he) made himself partner

→ (he) participated

(he) became tangled

(he) partnered with

'ibtasam(a)

اِبْتَسَمَ

basam(a)

بَسَمَ

(he) made himself smile

→ (he) smiled (intr.)

(he) smiled (intr.)

'intabah(a)

اِنْتَبَهَ

nabih(a)

نَبِهَ

(he) made himself become aware

→ (he) was/became aware (intr.)

(he) was/became aware (intr.)

'ishtaraa

اِشْتَرَىْ*

sharaa

شَرَىْ*

(he) made himself buy

→ (he) bought

(he) bought

'iltaqaa

اِلْتَقَىْ*

laqiy(a)

لَقِيَ

(he) made himself meet

→ (he) met

(he) met

(he) came across

'ikhtaar(a)

اِخْتَاْرَ*

khaar(a)

خَاْرَ*

(he) made himself choose

→ (he) chose

(he) chose

(he) roared

(he) collapsed

(he) was/became good

'ibtaa"(a)

اِبْتَاْعَ*

baa"(a)

بَاْعَ*

(he) made himself transact

→ (he) bought

(he) sold

classical:

(he) transacted (business)

* Irregular verbs.

 

 

Basic Meanings of Form VIII

Reflexive

(he) did himself

Reflexive Causative

(he) made himself do

emphatic of the subject's role in initiating & maintaining the action

 

 

Connotative Meaning of Form VIII

Reflexive Conative

(he) sought to do himself

factitious reflexive

Emphatic

(he), himself, did

Mutual

(he) engaged in mutual doing

 

 

 

Special Issues

 

1. W  و, Y ي

 

If the first root letter of form VIII (the letter substituting for the f) is one of the weak letters w or y, it will be changed to a letter t. The Arabic roots that begin with a y are quite uncommon, so this rule mainly regards roots beginning with a w .

 

اِفْتَعَلَ : اِيْتَعَلَ اِتْتَعَلَ / اِتَّعَلَ

 

 

 

'ifta"al(a) : 'iyta"al(a) 'itta"al(a)

 

 

اِفْتَعَلَ : اِوْتَعَلَ اِتْتَعَلَ / اِتَّعَلَ

 

 

 

'ifta"al(a) : 'iwta"al(a) 'itta"al(a)

 

 

Examples:

 

 

Form VIII

Form I

'ittasar(a)

اِتَّسَرَ

yasar(a)

يَسَرَ

(he) made easy

→ (he) was/became easy

yasur(a)

يَسُرَ

(he) was/became easy

'ittasa"(a)

اِتَّسَعَ

wasa"(a)

وَسَعَ

(he) made spacious

(he) made himself spacious

→ (he) had room

(he) was/became roomy(er)

wasi"(a)

وَسِعَ

(he) was/became spacious

'ittasal(a)

اِتَّصَلَ

wasal(a)

وَصَلَ

→ (he) was/became connected

→ (he) telephoned

(he) connected

(he) arrived

'ittafaq(a)

اِتّفَقَ

wafiq(a)

وَفِقَ

(he) was/became consistent

→ (he) agreed, was consistent

(he) made agreement

(he) was/became consistent

'ittaham(a)

اِتَّهَمَ

waham(a)

وَهَمَ

(he) made himself fancy

→ (he) accused

(he) fancied, supposed

'ittakal(a)

اِتَّكَلَ

wakal(a)

وَكَلَ

(he) entrusted himself

→ (he) relied

(he) entrusted (something)

(he) deputized (someone)

'ittazan(a)

اِتَّزَنَ

wazan(a)

وَزَنَ

(he) made himself weigh

→ (he) stabilized (intr.)

(he) weighed

'ittasaf(a)

اِتَّصَفَ

wasaf(a)

وَصَفَ

(he) was/became described

(he) was/became known (by some quality)

→ (he) had the quality (of something)

(he) described

'ittasam(a)

اِتَّسَمَ

wasam(a)

وَسَمَ

→ (he) was/became marked

(he) branded, marked

'ittaqaa

اِتَّقَىْ

waqaa

وَقَىْ

(he) protected himself

{(he) sought to protect himself}

(he) sought protection (tr.)

(he) protected

'ittasaq(a)

اِتَّسَقَ

wasaq(a)

وَسَقَ

(he) pulled himself together

→ (he) was/became stable, organized

(he) pulled together (tr.)

(he) fastened up (his belongings before traveling)

classical verb

 

 

2. 'ittakhath(a) اِتَّخَذَ

This is a common verb in Arabic. It is derived from the root ' kh th أ خ ذ = "take." The first letter of this root is a hamza(t) or a consonant 'alif.

 

 

أَخَذَ

 

'akhath(a)

 

(He) took

 

When rendered in form VIII, it is supposed to look like that:

 

 

اِئْتَخَذَ

 

'i'<takhath(a)

(he) made himself take

→ (he) took as (e.g. he took the woman wife)

(he) made (e.g. his house a workplace)

 

However, it appears because this verb was so commonly used, it evolved and became eventually a form that is easier to pronounce by turning the first root letter into a t.

 

اِتَّخَذَ

'ittakhath(a)

(he) made himself take

→ (he) took as, made

 

N.B. if you want how exactly this verb evolved, look at the rule in the bottom of this page.

 

This transformation is specific to this verb and maybe few other obsolete verbs, but it is not a general rule for roots beginning with a hamza(t). The general rule is that the hamza(t) will be kept intact.

 

اِفْتَعَلَ : اِئْتَعَلَ

 

 

'ifta"al(a) : 'i'<ta"al(a)

 

 

3. Dentals

 

"T" is a dental consonant, because it is produced from the teeth (by placing the tongue against the back of the teeth).

 

For merely phonological reasons, the -t- infix of form VIII can change to other letters when the first root letter is a letter produced from the teeth in a similar manner to T (that is, a plosive or fricative dental, inter-dental, or alveolar consonant). This is necessary because clusters of dental letters can be too hard to pronounce even for Arabs who otherwise like to articulate difficult twisted sounds.

 

The -t- will be changed with roots beginning with the following letters:

 

The -t- Infix First Root Letter

ث

-th-

th ث

د

-d-

d د
th ذ
z ز

ط

-t-

s ص
d ض
t ط
z ظ

 

 

 

I. -t- -th-

 

The -t- infix will be changed to -th- when the first root letter is th. Such verbs are very rare, and they are all obsolete as far as I can tell.

 

اِفْتَعَلَ : اِثْتَعَلَ اِثْثَعَلَ / اِثَّعَلَ

 

 

 

'ifta"al(a) : 'ithta"al(a) 'iththa"al(a)

 

 

 

Some excavated examples:

 

Form VIII

Form I

'iththa'ar(a)

اِثَّأَرَ

tha'ar(a)

ثَأَرَ

(he) made himself avenge

→ (he) avenged

(he) avenged

'iththarad(a)

اِثَّغَرَ

tharar(a)

ثَغَرَ

(he) made himself toothless

→ (he) shed his teeth (a child)

(he) notched, slashed

(he) made a hole

(he) made toothless

'iththarad(a)

اِثَّرَدَ

tharad(a)

ثَرَدَ

(he) made himself make that food

→ (he) made that food

(he) crushed (bread) into flakes and dipped them in meat broth

 

Some of these verbs could be transformed in other ways as well, examples:

 

Form VIII

Form I

اِدَّغَرَ

اِتَّغَرَ

اِثَّغَرَ

ثَغَرَ

اِدَّرَدَ

اِتَّرَدَ

اِثَّرَدَ

ثَرَدَ

 

 

II. -t- -d-

 

The -t- will become -d- when the first root letter is d, th, or z.

 

d

اِفْتَعَلَ : اِدْتَعَلَ اِدْدَعَلَ / اِدَّعَلَ

 

 

 

'ifta"al(a) : 'idta"al(a) 'idda"al(a)

 

 

Form VIII

Form I

'idda"aa

اِدَّعَىْ

da"aa

دَعَاْ

(he) made himself call

→ (he) claimed (intr.)

→ (he) prosecuted (intr.)

(he) called

'iddathar(a)

اِدَّثَرَ

dathar(a)

دَثَرَ

(he) made himself become covered

→ (he) covered up (intr.)

(he) faded away

(he) accumulated

(he) became covered

'iddarak(a)

اِدَّرَكَ

darak(a)

دَرَكَ

(he) made himself catch up

→ (he) caught up, followed and reached

(he) caught up, followed and reached

 

 

th

 

اِفْتَعَلَ : اِذْتَعَلَ اِدْدَعَلَ / اِدَّعَلَ

 

 

 

'ifta"al(a) : 'ithta"al(a) 'idda"al(a)

 

Examples:

 

Form VIII

Form I

'iddakhar(a)

اِدَّخَرَ

thakhar(a)

ذَخَرَ

(he) made himself become covered

→ (he) covered up (intr.)

(he) stored

'iddakar(a)

اِدَّكَرَ

thakar(a)

ذَكَرَ

(he) made himself remember

→ (he) remembered

(he) remembered

(he) mentioned

'iddabah(a)

اِدَّبَحَ

thabah(a)

ذَبَحَ

(he) made himself slaughter

→ (he) slaughtered

(he) slaughtered

 

 

Other forms:

 

Form VIII

Form I

اِذْدَخَرَ

اِذَّخَرَ

اِدَّخَرَ

ذَخَرَ

اِذْدَكَرَ

اِذَّكَرَ

اِدَّكَرَ

ذَكَرَ

 

 

z

اِفْتَعَلَ : اِزْتَعَلَ اِزْدَعَلَ

 

 

'ifta"al(a) : 'izta"al(a) 'izda"al(a)

 

 

Form VIII

Form I

'izdaad(a)

اِزْدَاْدَ

zaad(a)

زَاْدَ

(he) increased himself

→ (he) increased (intr.)

(he) increased (tr./intr.)

'izdaham(a)

اِزْدَحَمَ

zaham(a)

زَحَمَ

(he) was/became crowded

(he) crowded

'izdahar(a)

اِزْدهَرَ

zahar(a)

زَهَرَ

(he) made himself bloom, gleam

→ (he) bloomed, gleamed, flourished

(he) bloomed, gleamed

'izdaraa

اِزْدَرَىْ

zaraa

زَرَىْ

(he) made himself censure

→ (he) disdained

(he) censured

'izdarad(a)

اِزْدَرَدَ

zarad(a)

زَرَدَ

(he) made himself swallow

→ (he) sipped, swallowed

(he) sewed

(he) swallowed

'izdahaa

اِزْدَهَىْ

zahaa

زَهَىْ

(he) made himself blossom, shine

→ (he) blossomed, shined

(he) blossomed, grew

(he) shined

'izdaan(a)

اِزْدَاْنَ

zaan(a)

زَاْنَ

(he) became adorned

(he) adorned

'izdalaf(a)

اِزْدَلَفَ

zalaf(a)

زَلَفَ

(he) made himself approach

→ (he) approached (God) (intr.)

(he) approached (intr.)

'izdawaj(a)

اِزْدَوَجَ

zawj(un)

زَوْجٌ

(he) was/became a pair

a pair (noun, masc.)

refers to one of two matched articles

 

 

III. -t- -t-

 

The -t- will become -t- when the first root letter is s, d, t, or z.

 

s

 

اِفْتَعَلَ : اِصْتَعَلَ اِصْطَعَلَ

 

 

 

'ifta"al(a) : 'ista"al(a) 'ista"al(a)

 

 

 

Form VIII

Form I

'istahab(a)

اِصْطَحَبَ

sahib(a)

صَحِبَ

(he) made himself accompany

→ (he) accompanied

(he) accompanied

'istadam(a)

اِصْطَدَمَ

sadam(a)

صَدَمَ

(he) hit, banged himself

→ (he) hit, banged (intr.)

(he) hit, banged

'istabar(a)

اِصْطَبَغَ

sabar(a)

صَبَغَ

(he) dyed himself

→ (he) became dyed

(he) dyed

'istaad(a)

اِصْطَاْدَ

saad(a)

صَاْدَ

(he) made himself hunt

→ (he) hunted

(he) hunted

'istana"(a)

اِصْطَنَعَ

sana"(a)

صَنَعَ

(he) made himself make

→ (he) faked, pretended

(he) made, created

'istaff(a)

اِصْطَفَّ

saff(a)

صَفَّ

(he) lined himself up

→ (he) lined up (intr.)

(he) lined up

'istalah(a)

اِصْطَلَحَ

salah(a)

صَلَحَ

(he) became good

[used with plural: (they) became good = (they) agreed]

→ (he) agreed (intr.)

(they) made (something) a convention (intr.)

(he) was/became good

'istabar(a)

اِصْطَبَرَ

sabar(a)

صَبَرَ

(he) made himself be patient

(he) was patient

'istafaa

اِصْطَفَىْ

safaa

صَفَاْ

(he) made himself pure

→ (he) chose

(he) was/became clear, pure

'istakk(a)

اِصْطَكَّ

sakk(a)

صَكَّ

(he) hit, banged himself

→ (he) hit, banged (intr.)

(he) hit, banged

(he) closed, firmed

(he) wrote a document

'istalaa

اِصْطَلَىْ

salaa

صَلَىْ

(he) exposed himself to fire

→ (he) warmed up by fire

(he) became exposed to/cast in fire

(he) became broiled

(he) exposed to fire

 (he) cast in fire

(he) broiled

'istaaf(a)

اِصْطَاْفَ

saaf(a)

صَاْفَ

(he) made himself spend summer

→ (he) spent summer

(he) spent summer

 

 

d

اِفْتَعَلَ : اِضْتَعَلَ اِضْطَعَلَ

 

 

 

'ifta"al(a) : 'idta"al(a) 'idta"al(a)

 

 

Form VIII

Form I

'idtarab(a)

اِضْطَرَبَ

darab(a)

ضَرَبَ

(he) stroke himself

→ (he) became in commotion

→ (he) became confused

(he) hit, stroke

'idtarr(a)

اِضْطَرَّ

darr(a)

ضَرَّ

(he) compelled himself

→ (he) became compelled

(he) hurt, damaged

→ (he) forced, compelled

'idtaramat

اِضْطَرَمَتْ

darim(a)

ضَرِمَ

(she) made herself hot

→ (she, a fire) flamed, blazed

(he) became deprived

→ (he) became hot and hungry

'idtala"(a)

اِضْطَلَعَ

dalu"(a)

ضَلُعَ

(he) made himself strong

→ (he) became capable

(he) had (strong) ribs

→ (he) was/became strong

'idtahad(a)

اِضْطَهَدَ

dahad(a)

ضَهَدَ

(he) made himself oppress

→ (he) persecuted

(he) oppressed

 

 

t

اِفْتَعَلَ : اِطْتَعَلَ اِطْطَعَلَ / اِطَّعَلَ

 

 

 

'ifta"al(a) : 'itta"al(a) 'itta"al(a)


 

Form VIII

Form I

'ittarad(a)

اِطَّرَدَ

tarad(a)

طَرَدَ

(he) drove himself away

→ (he) became driven

→ (he) flowed steadily

(he) drove away

(he) ousted, fired

'ittalab(a)

اِطَّلَبَ

talab(a)

طَلَبَ

(he) made himself request

→ (he) requested (much)

(he) requested

classical:

(he) sought (tr.)

'ittala"(a)

اِطَّلَعَ

tala"(a)

طَلَعَ

(he) made himself aware

→ (he) became aware

(he) rose, went up

(he) went out

classical:

→ (he) was/became aware (intr.)

'ittaaf(a)

اِطَّاْفَ

taaf(a)

طَاْفَ

(he) made himself wander

→ (he) wandered

(he) overflowed, flooded (intr.)

(he) wandered (tr.)

(he) circled (the Kaaba, a shrine, an idol)

 

 

z

اِفْتَعَلَ : اِظْتَعَلَ اِظْظَعَلَ / اِظَّعَلَ

 

 

 

'ifta"al(a) : 'izta"al(a) 'izza"al(a)

 

 

 

Form VIII

Form I

'izzalam(a)

اِظَّلَمَ

zalam(a)

ظَلَمَ

(he) wronged himself

→ (he) tolerated injustice

(he) wronged, treated unfairly

'izzann(a)

اِظَّنَّ

zann(a)

ظَنَّ

(he) made himself think

→ (he) accused, believed to be (tr.)

(he) thought, reckoned

 

 

 

 

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