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Arabic Online


• Welcome!

• Varieties of Arabic

• Alphabet

• Pronunciation
• Words
• Vowels
• Reading out

• Syllables

• Stress

• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Roots

• Sibawayh's phonology

• Historical phonology

• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

• Dual Nouns

• Plural Nouns EDITED

• Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

• Feminine Plural Nouns

• Irregular Plural Nouns
• Articles

• Case Inflection

• Case Endings

• The Six Nouns

• Noonation

• Adjectives

• Genitive Construction

• Am/Is/Are Sentences

• Verbs

• Irregular Verbs

• Verb Forms

• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

• Irregular Perfective Conjugation

• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

• Moods

• Subjunctive Mood

• Jussive Mood

• Mood Signs

• Energetic Mood

• Imperative Mood

• Passive Voice

• Passive Perfective Verbs

• Passive Imperfective Verbs

• Passive of Irregular Verbs

• Subject Pronouns

• Object Pronouns

• Demonstratives

• Relative Pronouns

• Sentences

• To Have

• Incomplete Verbs

• Frozen Verbs

• Verb-Like Particles

• Negation

• Present Negative

• Past Negative

• Future Negative

• Negation+Exclusion Style

• Interrogation

• Yes/No Questions

• Interrogative Pronouns

• Polite Request

• Introductory Particles

• Infinitival/Indefinite maa

• Prepositions

• Conjunctions

• Adverbs

• Inactive Particles

• Ablative Particles

• Vocative Particles

• Exclamatory Style

• Praise & Disparagement

• Derived Nouns

• Verbal Nouns

• Active Participles

• Passive Participles

• Participle-like Adjectives

• Comparatives

• Place-nouns

• Time-nouns

• Tool-nouns

• Attributives

• Diminutives

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• Dialects

• Survival Phrases


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Pronouns (continued)


II. Indirect Object


Attached object pronouns serve as indirect objects by attachment to nouns (to form genitive constructions), to prepositions, or to verbs along with other pronouns.


۞ Indirect Objects of Verbs

This is an archaic usage. In the modern language, the indirect, or second, object of a verb would usually be referred to by a separate object pronoun as we showed earlier.




= (I) gave you him

Translation: I gave it to you




= (you plu. masc.) asked me her

Translation: you asked me for it

Or: you asked me about it

An important note here is that the order of pronouns attached to verb does not depend on which one is direct object and which one is indirect. Rather, the 1st person pronouns will always come before the 2nd person pronouns in order, and these will always come before the 3rd person pronouns.


۞ Object Pronouns Attached to Nouns

Object pronouns will be attached to nouns to form genitive constructions.


1. Object Pronouns Attached to Singular Nouns


1) 'ar-raf" Case

'ar-raf" case الرَّفْعُ is the nominative or the subject case.



Stem noun: kitaab(un) = a book  كِتَاْبٌ   ('ar-raf" Case)


literal translation


My book

kitaab-ee = (the) book (of) me


Your book (sing. masc.) kitaabu-k(a) = (the) book (of) you كِتَاْبُكَ
Your book (sing. fem.) kitaabu-k(i) = (the) book (of) you كِتَاْبُكِ
His book kitaabu-h(u) = (the) book (of) him كِتَاْبُهُ
Her book kitaabu-haa = (the) book (of) her كِتَاْبُهَاْ
Your book (dual) kitaabu-kumaa = (the) book (of) them كِتَاْبُكُمَاْ
Their book (dual) kitaabu-humaa = (the) book (of) them كِتَاْبُهُمَاْ
Our book

kitaabu-naa = (the) book (of) us


Your book (plu. masc.) kitaabu-kum = (the) book (of) you كِتَاْبُكُمْ
Your book (plu. fem.) kitaabu-kunn(a) = (the) book (of) you كِتَاْبُكُنَّ
Their book (plu. masc.)

kitaabu-hum = (the) book (of) them


Their book (plu. fem.)

kitaabu-hunn(a) = (the) book (of) them


Remember that the word forming the first part of a genitive construction is always a definite word.

Also note that attaching the pronoun -ee ـي = "me," to a noun will not allow the case-sign to appear, it will be called "estimated" مُقَدَّرَة between the noun and the pronoun.


Attachment of 1st Person Singular Object Pronoun to Nouns Ending With a Long Vowel


Long vowels at the end of nouns will turn the -ee = -iy  into a -y(a). The same transformation will also occur when adding the -ee to dual and masculine plural nouns, as we shall see in the next page. 





= (the) stick (of) me

Translation: my stick/cane



muhaamee-y(a) = muhaamiy-y(a)

= (the) attorney (of) me

Translation: my attorney


The consonant -y was followed by a short vowel -a in this case in order to prevent two still letters from directly following each other, which is a bad thing in Arabic.


2) 'an-nasb Case

'an-nasb case النَّصْبُ is the accusative, dative or vocative cases.

Things here are like what they were for the previous case.

Stem noun: kitaaba(n) = a book  كِتَاْبًا  ('an-nasb Case)


literal translation


My book

kitaab-ee = (the) book (of) me


Your book (sing. masc.)

kitaaba-k(a) = (the) book (of) you


Your book (sing. fem.)

kitaaba-k(i) = (the) book (of) you


His book

kitaaba-h(u) = (the) book (of) him


Her book

kitaaba-haa = (the) book (of) her


Your book (dual)

kitaaba-kumaa = (the) book (of) them


Their book (dual)

kitaaba-humaa = (the) book (of) them


Our book

kitaaba-naa = (the) book (of) us


Your book (plu. masc.)

kitaaba-kum = (the) book (of) you


Your book (plu. fem.)

kitaaba-kunn(a) = (the) book (of) you


Their book (plu. masc.)

kitaaba-hum = (the) book (of) them


Their book (plu. fem.)

kitaaba-hunn(a) = (the) book (of) them



3) 'al-jarr Case

'al-jarr case is the ablative or the genitive cases. The regular case-sign for this case is a short vowel -i, which is one of the three sounds ( -i, -ee, and -ay ) that lead to bad combinations with 3rd person pronouns. Therefore, we will see here changes in the third person pronouns.

Stem noun: kitaab(in) = a book  كِتَاْبٍ   ('al-jarr Case)


literal translation


My book

kitaab-ee = (the) book (of) me


Your book (sing. masc.)

kitaabi-k(a) = (the) book (of) you


Your book (sing. fem.)

kitaabi-k(i) = (the) book (of) you


His book

kitaabi-h(i) = (the) book (of) him


Her book

kitaabi-haa = (the) book (of) her


Your book (dual)

kitaabi-kumaa = (the) book (of) them


Their book (dual)

kitaabi-himaa = (the) book (of) them


Our book

kitaabi-naa = (the) book (of) us


Your book (plu. masc.)

kitaabi-kum = (the) book (of) you


Your book (plu. fem.)

kitaabi-kunn(a) = (the) book (of) you


Their book (plu. masc.)

kitaabi-him = (the) book (of) them


Their book (plu. fem.)

kitaabi-hinn(a) = (the) book (of) them







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