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ARABIC ONLINE

        اللّغة العربيّة    

Arabic Online

 

• Welcome!

• Varieties of Arabic

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• Words

• Vowels

• Reading out

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• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Sibawayh's phonology

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• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

• Dual Nouns

• Plural Nouns

• Sound Masculine Plural Nouns

• Sound Feminine Plural Nouns

• Irregular Plural Nouns

• Articles

• Case Inflection

• Case Endings

• The Six Nouns

• Noonation

• Adjectives

• Genitive Construction

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• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

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• Moods

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• MoodSigns

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• Passive Voice

• Passive Perfective Verbs

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• Passive of Irregular Verbs

• Subject Pronouns

• Object Pronouns

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Pronouns (continued)

 

2. Object Pronouns Attached to Dual Nouns

In the genitive construction section, we saw that the noun declensions which have noon ن at their ends (dual and masculine plural) must lose the noon when they are the first part of a genitive construction. This is still true here.

As we mentioned in the previous page, the form -y(a) of the 1st person singular pronoun must be used instead of the standard -ee when adding the pronoun to dual or masculine plural nouns.

 

1) 'ar-raf" Case

 

Noun: kitaabaan(i) = two books  كِتَاْبَاْنِ ('ar-raf" Case)

Meaning

literal translation

Example

My two books

kitaabaa-y(a) = (the) two books (of) me

كِتَاْبَاْيَ

Your two books

(sing. masc.)

kitaabaa-k(a) = (the) two books (of) you كِتَاْبَاْكَ

Your two books

(sing. fem.)

kitaabaa-k(i) = (the) two books (of) you كِتَاْبَاْكِ

His two books

kitaabaa-h(u) = (the) two books (of) him كِتَاْبَاْهُ

Her two books

kitaabaa-haa = (the) two books (of) her كِتَاْبَاْهَاْ

Your two books

(dual)

kitaabaa-kumaa = (the) two books (of) them كِتَاْبَاْكُمَاْ

Their two books

(dual)

kitaabaa-humaa = (the) two books (of) them كِتَاْبَاْهُمَاْ

Our two books

kitaabaa-naa = (the) two books (of) us

كِتَاْبَاْنَاْ

Your two books

(plu. masc.)

kitaabaa-kum = (the) two books (of) you كِتَاْبَاْكُمْ

Your two books

(plu. fem.)

kitaabaa-kunn(a) = (the) two books (of) you كِتَاْبَاْكُنَّ

Their two books

(plu. masc.)

kitaabaa-hum = (the) two books (of) them

كِتَاْبَاْهُمْ

Their two books

(plu. fem.)

kitaabaa-hunn(a) = (the) two books (of) them

كِتَاْبَاْهُنَّ

 

 

2) 'an-nasb & 'al-jarr Cases

In these cases the case-sign will be -ay, which will lead to bad combinations with the third person pronouns and thus changes will be made.

 

 

Noun: kitaabayn(i) = two books  كِتَاْبَيْنِ (Object Case)

Meaning

literal translation

Example

My two books

kitaabay-y(a) = (the) two books (of) me

كِتَاْبَيَّ

Your two books

(sing. masc.)

kitaabay-k(a) = (the) two books (of) you

كِتَاْبَيْكَ

Your two books

(sing. fem.)

kitaabay-k(i) = (the) two books (of) you

كِتَاْبَيْكِ

His two books

kitaabay-h(i) = (the) two books (of) him

كِتَاْبَيْهِ

Her two books

kitaabay-haa = (the) two books (of) her

كِتَاْبَيْهَاْ

Your two books

(dual)

kitaabay-kumaa = (the) two books (of) them

كِتَاْبَيْكُمَاْ

Their two books

(dual)

kitaabay-himaa = (the) two books (of) them

كِتَاْبَيْهِمَاْ

Our two books

kitaabay-naa = (the) two books (of) us

كِتَاْبَيْنَاْ

Your two books

(plu. masc.)

kitaabay-kum = (the) two books (of) you

كِتَاْبَيْكُمْ

Your two books

(plu. fem.)

kitaabay-kunn(a) = (the) two books (of) you

كِتَاْبَيْكُنَّ

Their two books

(plu. masc.)

kitaabya-him = (the) two books (of) them

كِتَاْبَيْهِمْ

Their two books

(plu. fem.)

kitaabay-hinn(a) = (the) two books (of) them

كِتَاْبَيْهِنَّ

 

 

3. Object Pronouns Attached to Masculine Plural Nouns

The noon ن at the end of masculine plural nouns must go away when they form the first part of a genitive construction.

The form -y(a) of the 1st person singular pronoun must be used instead of -ee .

 

1) 'ar-raf" Case

The -oo sign of this case will be turned to -ee when attaching the 1st person singular pronoun -ee  to the noun. Euphony is the only reason behind this transformation and it does not mean that the case-sign has changed, nor has the case of the noun which is still the subject case.

 

 

mu"allimoon(a)

مُعَلِّمُوْنَ

mu"allimoo-y(a)

مُعَلِّمُوْيَ

mu"allimee-y(a)

مُعَلِّمِيَّ

 

Noun: mu"allimoon(a) = teachers  مُعَلِّمُوْنَ ('ar-raf" Case)

Meaning

literal translation

Example

My teachers

mu"allimee-y(a) = (the) teachers (of) me

مُعَلِّمِيَّ

Your teachers

(sing. masc.)

mu"allimoo-k(a) = (the) teachers (of) you

مُعَلِّمُوْكَ

Your teachers

(sing. fem.)

mu"allimoo-k(i) = (the) teachers (of) you

مُعَلِّمُوْكِ

His teachers

mu"allimoo-h(u) = (the) teachers (of) him

مُعَلِّمُوْهُ

Her teachers

mu"allimoo-haa = (the) teachers (of) her

مُعَلِّمُوْهَاْ

Your teachers

(dual)

mu"allimoo-kumaa = (the) teachers (of) them

مُعَلِّمُوْكُمَاْ

Their teachers (dual)

mu"allimoo-humaa = (the) teachers (of) them

مُعَلِّمُوْهُمَاْ

Our teachers

mu"allimoo-naa = (the) teachers (of) us

مُعَلِّمُوْنَاْ

Your teachers

(plu. masc.)

mu"allimoo-kum = (the) teachers (of) you

مُعَلِّمُوْكُمْ

Your teachers

(plu. fem.)

mu"allimoo-kunn(a) = (the) teachers (of) you

مُعَلِّمُوْكُنَّ

Their teachers

(plu. masc.)

mu"allimoo-hum= (the) teachers (of) them

مُعَلِّمُوْهُمْ

Their teachers

(plu. fem.)

mu"allimoo-hunn(a) = (the) teachers (of) them

مُعَلِّمُوْهُنَّ

 

 

2) 'an-nasb & 'al-jarr Cases

In these cases the sign will be -ee, which will lead to bad combinations with the the third person pronouns and thus there will be changes.

 

Noun: mu"allimeen(a) = teachers  مُعَلِّمِيْنَ (Object Case)

Meaning

literal translation

Example

My teachers

mu"allimee-y(a) = (the) teachers (of) me

مُعَلِّمِيَّ

Your teachers

(sing. masc.)

mu"allimee-k(a) = (the) teachers (of) you

مُعَلِِّّمِيْكَ

Your teachers

(sing. fem.)

mu"allimee-k(i) = (the) teachers (of) you

مُعَلِِّّمِيْكِ

His teachers

mu"allimee-h(i) = (the) teachers (of) him

مُعَلِّّمِيْهِ

Her teachers

mu"allimee-haa = (the) teachers (of) her

مُعَلِّّمِيْهَاْ

Your teachers

(dual)

mu"allimee-kumaa = (the) teachers (of) them

مُعَلِِّّمِيْكُمَاْ

Their teachers (dual)

mu"allimee-himaa = (the) teachers (of) them

مُعَلِّّمِيْهِمَاْ

Our teachers

mu"allimee-naa = (the) teachers (of) us

مُعَلِِّّمِيْنَاْ

Your teachers

(plu. masc.)

mu"allimee-kum = (the) teachers (of) you

مُعَلِِّّمِيْكُمْ

Your teachers

(plu. fem.)

mu"allimee-kunn(a) = (the) teachers (of) you

مُعَلِِّّمِيْكُنَّ

Their teachers

(plu. masc.)

mu"allimee-him= (the) teachers (of) them

مُعَلِّّمِيْهِمْ

Their teachers

(plu. fem.)

mu"allimee-hinn(a) = (the) teachers (of) them

مُعَلِِّّمِيْهِنَّ

 

Feminine plural and irregular plural nouns will behave just like regular nouns when attached to object pronouns.

 

Forms of the 1st Person Singular Object Pronoun With Attachment to Nouns

Singular Nouns

Not Ending With Long Vowel

-ee

-y(a)

in Classical Arabic (Koran)

Ending With Long Vowel

-y(a)

Dual Nouns

-y(a)

Plural Nouns

-y(a)

 

 

4. Object Pronouns Attached to Noun Prepositions

Many prepositions in Arabic are nouns, and they can be attached to pronouns to form genitive constructions just like any other nouns.

Examples:

In front of him 'amaama-h(u)

(in) (the) front (of) him

أَمَاْمَهُ
Behind her khalfa-haa

(in) (the) back (of) her

خَلْفَهَاْ
Underneath us tahta-naa

(in) (the) underneath (of) us

تَحْتَنَاْ
After you (plu. masc.) ba"da-kum

(in) (the) "after" (of) you

بَعْدَكُمْ
Before them (plu. fem.) qabla-hunn(a)

(in) (the) "before" (of) them

قَبْلَهُنَّ

 

 

 

 

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