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  Arabic Online

ARABIC ONLINE

        اللّغة العربيّة    

Arabic Online

 

• Welcome!

• Varieties of Arabic

• Alphabet

• Pronunciation
• Words
• Vowels
• Reading out

• Syllables

• Stress

• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Roots

• Sibawayh's phonology

• Historical phonology

• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

• Dual Nouns

• Plural Nouns EDITED

• Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

• Feminine Plural Nouns

• Irregular Plural Nouns
• Articles

• Case Inflection

• Case Endings

• The Six Nouns

• Noonation

• Adjectives

• Genitive Construction

• Am/Is/Are Sentences

• Verbs

• Irregular Verbs

• Verb Forms

• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

• Irregular Perfective Conjugation

• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

• Moods

• Subjunctive Mood

• Jussive Mood

• Mood Signs

• Energetic Mood

• Imperative Mood

• Passive Voice

• Passive Perfective Verbs

• Passive Imperfective Verbs

• Passive of Irregular Verbs

• Subject Pronouns

• Object Pronouns

• Demonstratives

• Relative Pronouns

• Sentences

• To Have

• Incomplete Verbs

• Frozen Verbs

• Verb-Like Particles

• Negation

• Present Negative

• Past Negative

• Future Negative

• Negation+Exclusion Style

• Interrogation

• Yes/No Questions

• Interrogative Pronouns

• Polite Request

• Introductory Particles

• Infinitival/Indefinite maa

• Prepositions

• Conjunctions

• Adverbs

• Inactive Particles

• Ablative Particles

• Vocative Particles

• Exclamatory Style

• Praise & Disparagement

• Derived Nouns

• Verbal Nouns

• Active Participles

• Passive Participles

• Participle-like Adjectives

• Comparatives

• Place-nouns

• Time-nouns

• Tool-nouns

• Attributives

• Diminutives

• Vocabulary

• Dialects

• Survival Phrases

 

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Pronouns (continued)

 

4. Attached Object Pronouns

These are the object pronouns that are used most often. They can serve both as direct and indirect object pronouns.

 Attached Object Pronouns

 ضَمائِرُ النَصْبِ والجَرِّ المُتَّصِلَةِ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

Me

-ee

ـِيْ 

You (masc.)

-k(a)

ـكَ

You (fem.)

-k(i)

ـكِ

Him

-h(u)

ـهُ

Her

-haa

ـهَاْ

D

U

A

L

You

-kumaa

ـكُمَاْ

Them

-humaa

ـهُمَاْ

P

L

U

R

A

L

Us (dual / plu.)

-naa

ـنَاْ

You (masc.)

-kum

ـكُمْ

You (plu. fem.)

-kunn(a)

ـكُنَّ

Them (masc.)

-hum

ـهُمْ

Them (fem.)

-hunn(a)

ـهُنَّ

 

Although it does not really have any practical implication, it should be said (for the sake of perfection) that the attached object pronouns are only the letters colored in blue, whereas the rest are just markers. Here are the names of the pronouns:

 Attached Object Pronouns

 ضَمائِرُ النَصْبِ والجَرِّ المُتَّصِلَةِ

 

Marker

Pronoun

Declension

 1st Person

 

يَاْءُ الْمُتَكَلِّمِ

-ee

ـِيْ 

yaa'< of the speaker

 

نَاْ الْمُتَكَلِّمِيْنَ

-naa

ـنَاْ

naa of speakers

 2nd Person

Masculine marker

كَاْفُ الْخِطَاْبِ

-k(a)

ـكَ

kaaf of the vocative

Feminine marker

كَاْفُ الْخِطَاْبِ

-k(i)

ـكِ

kaaf of the vocative

Dual marker

كَاْفُ الْخِطَاْبِ

-kumaa

ـكُمَاْ

kaaf of the vocative

Masculine plural marker

كَاْفُ الْخِطَاْبِ

-kum

ـكُمْ

kaaf of the vocative

Feminine plural marker

كَاْفُ الْخِطَاْبِ

-kunn(a)

ـكُنَّ

kaaf of the vocative

3rd Person

Masculine marker

هَاْءُ الْغِيْبَةِ

-h(u)

ـهُ

haa'< of absence

Feminine marker

هَاْءُ الْغِيْبَةِ

-haa

ـهَاْ

haa'< of absence

Dual marker

هَاْءُ الْغِيْبَةِ

-humaa

ـهُمَاْ

haa'< of absence

Masculine plural marker

هَاْءُ الْغِيْبَةِ

-hum

ـهُمْ

haa'< of absence

Feminine plural marker

هَاْءُ الْغِيْبَةِ

-hunn(a)

ـهُنَّ

haa'< of absence

 

I. Direct Object

 

This is often when the attached object pronoun is attached to verbs.

Examples:

أُحِبُّكِ

'auhibbu-k(i)

= (I) love you (sing. fem.)

Translation: I love you

 

أُحِبُّكَ

'auhibbu-k(a)

= (I) love you (sing. masc.)

Translation: I love you

 

فَعَلَهَاْ

fa"ala-haa

= (He) did her

Translation: he did it

 

سَأُعَلِّمُهُ

sa-'u"allimu-h(u)

= (I) will teach him

Translation: I will teach him

 

نَعْرِفُهُمْ

na"rifu-hum

= (we) know them (plu. masc.)

Translation: we know them

 

قَاْلَتَاْهَاْ

qaalataa-haa

= (they dual fem.) said her

Translation: they said it

 

noon ن will be prefixed to the attached first person singular object pronoun -ee  ـِيْ to become -nee ـنِيْ in the following situations:

 

  • When it is attached to verbs.

  • When it is attached to either one of the two particles (مِنْ & عَنْ).

This noon ن is called the "noon of protection"  نُوْنُ الْوِقَاْيَةِ .

Examples:

سَاْعِدُوْنِيْ !

saa"idoo-nee

= (you plu. masc.) help me

Translation: help me!

 

سَيَعْرِفْنَنِيْ

sa-ya"rifna-nee

= (they plu. fem.) will know me

Translation: they will know me

 

An additional waaw و will also be prefixed to the same pronoun when it is attached to a 2nd person masculine plural perfective verb.

So the -ee pronoun will become here -oonee.

رَأَيْتُمُوْنِيْ

ra'aytum-oonee

= (you plu. masc.) saw me

Translation: you saw me

 

 

Attachment

Form of Pronoun "me"

To nouns and most particles

-ee  

ـِيْ 

To verbs and to the particles

(مِنْ & عَنْ)

-nee

ـنِيْ

To 2nd person masculine plural perfective verbs

-oonee

ـُوْنِيْ

 

Another changeable pronouns are the 3rd person pronouns. Most Arabs of ancient times didn't like the following combinations of sounds:

i-hu

ee-hu

ay-hu

When these combinations occur, the hu of the attached pronoun will be changed to hi.

Another way to say this is that the hu will become hi if the pronoun was precede by a short vowel i or a consonant letter yaa'< y.

Examples:

أَعْطِهِ

'a"ti-h(i)

= (you sing. masc.) give him

Translation: give him

 

أَعْطِيْهِمْ

'a"tee-him

= (you sing. fem.) give them (plu. masc.)

Translation: give them

 

يُرِيْهِنَّ

yuree-hinn(a)

= (he) shows them (plu. fem.)

Translation: he shows them

 

Forms of 3rd Person Attached Object Pronouns 
Preceded by i, ee, or ay Regular
-h(i) ـهِ -h(u) ـهُ
-haa ـهَاْ -haa ـهَاْ
-himaa ـهِمَاْ -humaa ـهُمَاْ
-him ـهِمْ -hum ـهُمْ
-hinn(a) ـهِنَّ -hunn(a) ـهُنَّ

 

The attached object pronouns will also be in the direct object ('an-nasb) case when they are attached to the verb-like particles الأَحْرُفُ الْمُشَبَّهَةُ بِالْفِعْلِ. One of the reasons that these particles were designated like that is because they can be attached to object pronouns.

Examples:

لَيْتَنِيْ كُنْتُ هُنَاْكَ

layta-nee kunt(u) hunaak(a)

= it is wished if me was there

Translation: I wish if I were there

layt(a)لَيْتَ   is a verb-like particle that is used for whishing.  Being verb-like, it takes the form -nee of the1st person singular attached object pronoun (me). The perfective verb kunt(u) كُنْتُ  was used because perfective verbs in Arabic can be used as subjunctive verbs. This is similar to English where the past form is also the subjunctive.

إِنَّهُ فِيْ الْدَّاْخِلِ

'inna-h(u) fee ('a)d-daakhil(i)

= it is true that him in the inside

Translation: he's inside

 

لَكِنَّكُنَّ قَدْ ذَهَبْتُنَّ

 laakinna-kunn(a) qad thahabtunn(a)

= but you (plu. fem.) have gone

Translation: but you've gone

 

لَعَلَّهَاْ تُمْطِرُ الْيَوْمَ

 la"alla-haa tumter(u) ('a)l-yawm(a)

= it is hoped that her will rain today

Translation: I hope it will rain today

 

As for the1st person singular attached object pronoun (me) and the verb-like particles, these particles can all take the two forms interchangeably, except for layt(a)لَيْتَ   to which it is very recommended that it take the form -nee only.

 

Forms of Verb-like Particles with the 1st Person Singular Attached Object Pronoun

'inn-ee إِنِّيْ 'inna-nee إِنَّنِيْ
'ann-ee أَنِّيْ 'anna-nee أَنَّنِيْ
ka'ann-ee كَأَنِّيْ ka'anna-nee كَأَنَّنِيْ
laakinn-ee لَكِنِّيْ laakinna-nee لَكِنَّنِيْ
la"all-ee لَعَلِّيْ la"alla-nee لَعَلَّنِيْ
--- --- layta-nee لَيْتَنِيْ

 

 

 

 

 

 

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