Praise & Disparagement
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4. Attached Object Pronouns
These are the object pronouns that are used most often. They can serve both as direct and indirect object pronouns.
Although it does not really have any practical implication, it should be said (for the sake of perfection) that the attached object pronouns are only the letters colored in blue, whereas the rest are just markers. Here are the names of the pronouns:
I. Direct Object
This is often when the attached object pronoun is attached to verbs.
= (I) love you (sing. fem.)
Translation: I love you
= (I) love you (sing. masc.)
Translation: I love you
= (He) did her
Translation: he did it
= (I) will teach him
Translation: I will teach him
= (we) know them (plu. masc.)
Translation: we know them
= (they dual fem.) said her
Translation: they said it
A noon ن will be prefixed to the attached first person singular object pronoun -ee ـِيْ to become -nee ـنِيْ in the following situations:
This noon ن is called the "noon of protection" نُوْنُ الْوِقَاْيَةِ .
= (you plu. masc.) help me
Translation: help me!
= (they plu. fem.) will know me
Translation: they will know me
An additional waaw و will also be prefixed to the same pronoun when it is attached to a 2nd person masculine plural perfective verb.
So the -ee pronoun will become here -oonee.
= (you plu. masc.) saw me
Translation: you saw me
Another changeable pronouns are the 3rd person pronouns. Most Arabs of ancient times didn't like the following combinations of sounds:
When these combinations occur, the hu of the attached pronoun will be changed to hi.
Another way to say this is that the hu will become hi if the pronoun was precede by a short vowel i or a consonant letter yaa'< y.
= (you sing. masc.) give him
Translation: give him
= (you sing. fem.) give them (plu. masc.)
Translation: give them
= (he) shows them (plu. fem.)
Translation: he shows them
The attached object pronouns will also be in the direct object ('an-nasb) case when they are attached to the verb-like particles الأَحْرُفُ الْمُشَبَّهَةُ بِالْفِعْلِ. One of the reasons that these particles were designated like that is because they can be attached to object pronouns.
لَيْتَنِيْ كُنْتُ هُنَاْكَ
layta-nee kunt(u) hunaak(a)
= it is wished if me was there
Translation: I wish if I were there
layt(a)لَيْتَ is a verb-like particle that is used for whishing. Being verb-like, it takes the form -nee of the1st person singular attached object pronoun (me). The perfective verb kunt(u) كُنْتُ was used because perfective verbs in Arabic can be used as subjunctive verbs. This is similar to English where the past form is also the subjunctive.
إِنَّهُ فِيْ الْدَّاْخِلِ
'inna-h(u) fee ('a)d-daakhil(i)
= it is true that him in the inside
Translation: he's inside
لَكِنَّكُنَّ قَدْ ذَهَبْتُنَّ
laakinna-kunn(a) qad thahabtunn(a)
= but you (plu. fem.) have gone
Translation: but you've gone
لَعَلَّهَاْ تُمْطِرُ الْيَوْمَ
la"alla-haa tumter(u) ('a)l-yawm(a)
= it is hoped that her will rain today
Translation: I hope it will rain today
As for the1st person singular attached object pronoun (me) and the verb-like particles, these particles can all take the two forms interchangeably, except for layt(a)لَيْتَ to which it is very recommended that it take the form -nee only.