Make your own free website on Tripod.com
  Arabic Online

ARABIC ONLINE

        اللّغة العربيّة    

Arabic Online

 

• Welcome!

• Varieties of Arabic

• Alphabet

• Pronunciation
• Words
• Vowels
• Reading out

• Syllables

• Stress

• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Roots

• Sibawayh's phonology

• Historical phonology

• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

• Dual Nouns

• Plural Nouns EDITED

• Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

• Feminine Plural Nouns

• Irregular Plural Nouns
• Articles

• Case Inflection

• Case Endings

• The Six Nouns

• Noonation

• Adjectives

• Genitive Construction

• Am/Is/Are Sentences

• Verbs

• Irregular Verbs

• Verb Forms

• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

• Irregular Perfective Conjugation

• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

• Moods

• Subjunctive Mood

• Jussive Mood

• Mood Signs

• Energetic Mood

• Imperative Mood

• Passive Voice

• Passive Perfective Verbs

• Passive Imperfective Verbs

• Passive of Irregular Verbs

• Subject Pronouns

• Object Pronouns

• Demonstratives

• Relative Pronouns

• Sentences

• To Have

• Incomplete Verbs

• Frozen Verbs

• Verb-Like Particles

• Negation

• Present Negative

• Past Negative

• Future Negative

• Negation+Exclusion Style

• Interrogation

• Yes/No Questions

• Interrogative Pronouns

• Polite Request

• Introductory Particles

• Infinitival/Indefinite maa

• Prepositions

• Conjunctions

• Adverbs

• Inactive Particles

• Ablative Particles

• Vocative Particles

• Exclamatory Style

• Praise & Disparagement

• Derived Nouns

• Verbal Nouns

• Active Participles

• Passive Participles

• Participle-like Adjectives

• Comparatives

• Place-nouns

• Time-nouns

• Tool-nouns

• Attributives

• Diminutives

• Vocabulary

• Dialects

• Survival Phrases

 

Add your comments to the Guestbook


View the Guestbook

 

IMPORTANT NOTICE

I have nothing to do with the adds that appear on this website (including the add on top which says "Arabic Code." This add is NOT mine). I don't sell books, courses, lessons, or anything.

This website is being transferred to another domain.

© Hani Deek 2005-2016. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this website's content without express and written permission from this website’s author is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Hani Deek with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

This site may not show well with browsers other than Microsoft Internet Explorer (e.g Firefox). If you are having problems with viewing the site, please consider trying another browser. Sorry about that.

 


 

Verbs

Perfective Structures (continued)

 

Triliteral Roots with Additional Letters

The three structures we have talked about so far did not have any additional letters. They were composed solely of the root letters plus short vowels, which do not count as letters. Those are called in Arabic the "bare" structures or measures الأَوْزَاْنُ الْمُجَرَّدَةُ .

With the employment of additional letters, there will be as many as 14 other structures of perfective verbs based on triliteral roots, making a total of fifteen forms.

Structures with additional letters are called in Arabic the "added to" or "augmented" structures الأَوْزَاْنُ الْمَزِيْدَةُ .

Here is a list of all the triliteral-rooted perfective verb structures:

Structures of Perfective Verbs with Triliteral Roots

(Active Voice)

No additional letters

Form I

fa"al(a)

فَعَلَ

fa"il(a)

فَعِلَ

fa"ul(a)

فَعُلَ

1 additional letter

Form II

fa""al(a)

فَعَّلَ

Form III

faa"al(a)

فَاْعَلَ

Form IV

'af"al(a)

أَفْعَلَ

2 additional letters

Form V

tafa''"al(a)

تَفَعَّلَ

Form VI

tafaa"al(a)

تَفَاْعَلَ

Form VII

'infa"al(a)

اِنْفَعَلَ

Form VIII

'ifta"al(a)

اِفْتَعَلَ

Form IX

'if"all(a)

اِفْعَلََّ

3 additional letters

Form X

'istaf"al(a)

اِسْتَفْعَلَ

Form XI

'if"aall(a)

اِفْعَاْلَّ

Form XII

'if"aw"al(a)

اِفْعَوْعَلَ

Form XIII

'if"awwal(a)

اِفْعَوَّلَ

Form XIV

'if"anlal(a)

اِفْعَنْلَلَ

Form XV

'if"anlaa

اِفْعَنْلَىْ

 

The last five structures (highlighted in red) are rare.

Note that the short vowel between the final two letters (the green short vowel) is fixed as a in all the forms other than form I. The only form that has a changeable green vowel is form I, as we have already seen. When those perfective verb forms are turned into imperfective, the green vowel will be fixed as i in all forms except forms V & VI which will still have a fixed a. Form I will still have a changeable green vowel in the imperfective like in the perfective. We are going to cover the imperfective verbs later.

Forms IX and XI are irregular doubled verbs. The green vowel is omitted in the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation of these verbs as well as in some other conjugations.

Form XV is an irregular defective verb. This form ends with a weak 'alif that becomes a letter y in other conjugations.

All the forms conjugate in the regular way mentioned earlier except for the irregular ones (i.e. forms IX and XI, the doubled verbs, and form XV, the defective verb). The conjugation of irregular verbs will be covered later.

Examples on the conjugation of the different forms:

 

Re-conjugated

Example

([he] did)

Form

(We) sat

جَلَسْنَاْ

جَلَسَ

فَعَلَ

jalasnaa

jalas(a)

(I) thought

حَسِبْتُ

حَسِبَ

فَعِلَ

hasibt(u)

hasib(a)

(She/it) was/became small(er)

صَغُرَتْ

صَغُرَ

فَعُلَ

sarurat

sarur(a)

(You, dual) taught

عَلَّمْتُمَاْ

عَلَّمَ

فَعَّلَ

"allamtumaa

"allam(a)

(They, masc. dual) fought

قَاْتَلا

قَاْتَلَ

فَاْعَلَ

qaatalaa

qaatal(a)

(They, masc. plu.) dignified

أَكْرَمُوْا

أَكْرَمَ

أَفْعَلَ

'akramoo

'akram(a)

(They, fem. dual) were late

تَأَخَّرَتَاْ

تَأَخَّرَ

تَفَعَّلَ

ta'akhkharataa

ta'akhkhar(a)

(You, masc. plu.) wondered

تَسَاْءَلْتُمْ

تَسَاْءَلَ

تَفَاْعَلَ

tasaa'altum

tasaa'al(a)

(She/it) exploded

اِنْفَجَرَتْ

اِنْفَجَرَ

اِنْفَعَلَ

'infajarat

'infajar(a)

(They, fem. plu.) became disconcerted

اِرْتَبَكْنَ

اِرْتَبَكَ

اِفْتَعَلَ

'irtabakn(a)

'irtabak(a)

(You, masc. sing.) reddened up

اِحْمَرَرْتَ *

اِحْمَرَّ

اِفْعَلََّ

'ihmarart(a)

'ihmarr(a)

(We) used

اِسْتَعْمَلْنَاْ

اِسْتَعْمَلَ

اِسْتَفْعَلَ

'ista"malnaa

'ista"mal(a)

*A doubled verb.

Just like how the first three structures showed differences in meaning, each one of the other structures also has its distinct meaning, or meanings. However, having deep knowledge of the different meanings of each structure is not that important. The important thing is to know what a verb means and to be able to conjugate it correctly.

A comprehensive review of the meanings of each structure with large numbers of examples are available here.

Here is a simplified list of the meanings of verb structures:

 

Meanings of Verb Forms

Form I

فَعَلَ

fa"al(a)

 

tr./intr.

Basic

(he) did

فَعِلَ

fa"il(a)

 

tr./intr.

Stative

(he) was/became something

فَعُلَ

fa"ul(a)

 

intr.

Stative

(he) was/became something

Form II

فَعَّلَ

fa""al(a)

 

tr./intr.

Causative

(he) made do

Intensive

(he) did much

Form III

فَاْعَلَ

faa"al(a)

 

tr./intr.

Conative

(he) sought to do

Mutual

(he) initiated mutual doing with

Intensive

(he) did much

Form IV

أَفْعَلَ

'af"al(a)

 

tr./intr.

Causative

(He) made do

Reflexive Causative

(He) made himself do

Form V

تَفَعَّلَ

tafa''"al(a)

 

tr./intr.

Reflexive Causative

(He) made himself do

Reflexive Intensive

(he) did himself much

Form VI

تَفَاْعَلَ

tafaa"al(a)

 

tr./intr.

Conative

(he) sought to do

Mutual

(he) initiated mutual doing with

Pretension

(he) pretended to do

Reflexive Intensive

(he) did himself much

Form VII

اِنْفَعَلَ

'infa"al(a)

 

intr.

Reflexive

(he) was/became done

Agentless Passive

(he) was/became done

Form VIII

اِفْتَعَلَ

'ifta"al(a)

 

tr./intr.

Reflexive

(he) did himself

Reflexive Causative

(he) made himself do

Form IX

اِفْعَلََّ

'if"all(a)

 

intr.

Stative

(he) was/became color/bodily characteristic

Form X

اِسْتَفْعَلَ

'istaf"al(a)

 

tr./intr.

Causative

(He) made do

Reflexive Causative

(he) made himself do

Arrangement/Request

(he) had/asked to do

(He) sought to be done by

Details about these meanings are available here. It should be noted that all of these structures are considered active verbs, although the reflexive structures can overlap in meaning with the passive (especially form VII which can be used as a real passive). Each one of these structures has a passive voice version which we will go through later.

It can often be not easy in real life to identify the meaning of a certain verb with the general meaning of its structure.

 

Exercise 1

 

Can you fill in the missing English pronouns inside the brackets?

 

(?) hurried (up)

أَسْرَعْتُمْ

(?) waited

اِنْتَظَرُوْا

(?) came close(er)

اِقْتَرَبْتُنَّ

(?) received

اِسْتَلَمْنَاْ

(?) tried

جَرَّبْنَ

(?) blued (became blue)

اِزْرَقَّتْ

(?) tried

حَاْوَلا

(?) became surprised

تَفَاْجَأْتِ

(?) won

اِنْتَصَرُوْا

(?) learned

تَعَلَّمْتُمَاْ

(?) roughened

اِخْشَوْشَنْتَ

 

 

Answers

 

(You plu. masc.) hurried (up)

أَسْرَعْتُمْ

(They plu. masc.) waited

اِنْتَظَرُوْا

(You plu. fem.) came close(er)

اِقْتَرَبْتُنَّ

(We) received

اِسْتَلَمْنَاْ

(They plu. fem.)  tried

جَرَّبْنَ

(She) blued (became blue)

اِزْرَقَّتْ

(They dual masc.) tried

حَاْوَلا

(You sing. fem.) became surprised

تَفَاْجَأْتِ

(They plu. masc.) won

اِنْتَصَرُوْا

(You dual) learned

تَعَلَّمْتُمَاْ

(You sing. masc.) roughened

اِخْشَوْشَنْتَ

 

 

Exercise 2

 

Can you tell the forms of the verbs in the previous exercise?

 

 

Answers

 

Form IV

أَسْرَعْتُمْ

Form VIII

اِنْتَظَرُوْا

Form VIII

اِقْتَرَبْتُنَّ

Form II

جَرَّبْنَ

Form IX

اِزْرَقَّتْ

Form III

حَاْوَلا

Form VI

تَفَاْجَأْتِ

Form VIII

اِسْتَلَمْنَاْ

Form VIII

اِنْتَصَرُوْا

Form V

تَعَلَّمْتُمَاْ

Form XII

اِخْشَوْشَنْتَ

 

 

Previous  Next