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ARABIC ONLINE

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Arabic Online

 

• Welcome!

• Varieties of Arabic

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• Words
• Vowels
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• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Roots

• Sibawayh's phonology

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• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

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• Plural Nouns EDITED

• Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

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• Articles

• Case Inflection

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• The Six Nouns

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• Am/Is/Are Sentences

• Verbs

• Irregular Verbs

• Verb Forms

• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

• Irregular Perfective Conjugation

• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

• Moods

• Subjunctive Mood

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Verbs

Perfective Structures

 

Conjugation of Irregular Verbs (continued)

 

For description of irregular verb types, you may go here

4) Defective Verbs

Defective verbs are verbs whose last original letter is a weak letter.

Defective verbs can end with ا / ى (fake weak 'alif) or with apparent و w or ي y.

All perfective defective verbs end with ا / ى except form I verbs that have i or u vowels before their final weak letters.

 

I. Triliteral Defective Verbs Ending With -iy(a) / -uw(a)

These verbs can only be form I verbs. They will conjugate regularly except in the 3rd parson masculine plural conjugation, in which the final weak letter will be deleted along with the preceding short vowel when adding the suffix.

Example:

 نَسِيَ

nasiy(a)

 

(He) forgot

The root is :  ن س يN S Y I

 

(he) forgot

nasiy(a)

نَسِيَ

(I) forgot

nasiyt(u)

=naseet(u)*

نَسِيْتُ

*Remember that a still weak letter preceded by a corresponding short vowel is equal to a long vowel (iy = ee, uw = oo).

 

In the 3rd parson masculine plural conjugation, the final weak letter will be deleted along with the short vowel preceding it (-vCa) when adding the suffix.

Example:

(He) forgot

nasiy(a)

نَسِيَ

(They masc.) forgot

nasiyoo

نَسِيُوْا

(They masc.) forgot

nasoo

نَسُوْا

 

The full conjugation:

 

 الْمَاْضِيْ Perfective  //  نَسِيَ : فَـعِـلَ

(Form I, Active Voice)

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) forgot

nasiyt(u)

نَسِيْتُ

(You masc.) forgot

nasiyt(a)

نَسِيْتَ

(You fem.) forgot

nasiyti

نَسِيْتِ

(He) forgot

nasiy(a)

نَسِيَ

(She) forgot

nasiyat

نَسِيَتْ

D

U

A

L

(You) forgot

nasiytumaa

نَسِيْتُمَاْ

(They masc.) forgot

nasiyaa

نَسِيَاْ

(They fem.) forgot

nasiyataa

نَسِيَتَاْ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) forgot

nasiynaa

نَسِيْنَاْ

(You masc.) forgot

nasiytum

نَسِيْتُمْ

(You fem.) forgot

nasiytunn(a)

نَسِيْتُنَّ

(They masc.) forgot

nasoo

نَسُوْا

(They fem.) forgot

nasiyn(a)

نَسِيْنَ

*Keep in mind that iy = ee and uw = oo. Arabic does not have real long vowels but only these combinations.

 

 

II. Triliteral Defective Verbs Ending With -aa

 

These verbs represent all the defective perfective verbs except form I verbs that have i or u after their second root-letters.

 

Form I verbs that have a after their second root-letter can end with ا or ى depending on whether the original final weak letter is w or y, respectively. Forms other than form I can only end with y, regardless of the origin of the final weak letter. More details are available on this page.

 

 

►Form I

 

The final the ا / ى  of form I defective verbs will be changed back to the original weak letter it substitutes for in the following conjugations:

  • The 1st person

  • The 2nd person

  • The 3rd person feminine plural and masculine dual

 

Example:

نَمَاْ

namaa

(He) grew (intr.)

The root is:  ن م وN M W I

 

(he) grew

namaa

نَمَاْ

(I) grew

namaat(u)

نَمَاْتُ

(I) grew

namawt(u)

نَمَوْتُ

The short vowel a preceding the final weak letter will appear in all verbs ending with weak 'alif.

For the rest of the conjugations other than the basic one (namely the 3rd person feminine singular & dual, and masculine plural), the final ا / ى will be always deleted.

For the 3rd feminine singular and feminine dual, the preceding short vowel (the a) will be deleted along.

Example:

 

(He) grew

namaa

نَمَاْ

(She) grew

namaaat

نَمَاَتْ

(She) grew

namat

نَمَتْ

 

For the 3rd person masculine plural, the short vowel a before the deleted weak letter will be preserved, and the resultant suffix will be -aw rather than -uw (=oo).

 

(He) grew

namaa

نَمَاْ

(They masc.) grew

namaauw

نَمَاُوْا

(They masc.) grew

namaw

نَمَوْا

 

The full conjugation:

 

 الْمَاْضِيْ Perfective  //  نَمَاْ : فَـعَـلَ

(Form I, Active Voice)

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) grew

namawt(u)

نَمَوْتُ

(You masc.) grew

namawt(a)

نَمَوْتَ

(You fem.) grew

namawti

نَمَوْتِ

(He) grew

namaa

نَمَاْ

(She) grew

namat

نَمَتْ

D

U

A

L

(You) grew

namawtumaa

نَمَوْتُمَاْ

(They masc.) grew

namawaa

نَمَوَاْ

(They fem.) grew

namataa

نَمَتَاْ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) grew

namawnaa

نَمَوْنَاْ

(You masc.) grew

namawtum

نَمَوْتُمْ

(You fem.) grew

namawtunn(a)

نَمَوْتُنَّ

(They masc.) grew

namaw

نَمَوْا

(They fem.) grew

namawn(a)

نَمَوْنَ

 

 

Another example:

بَكَىْ

bakaa

(He) cried

The root is:  ب ك يB K Y I

 

 

 الْمَاْضِيْ Perfective  //  بَكَىْ : فَـعَـلَ

(Form I, Active Voice)

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) cried

bakayt(u)

بَكَيْتُ

(You masc.) cried

bakayt(a)

بَكَيْتَ

(You fem.) cried

bakayti

بَكَيْتِ

(He) cried

bakaa

بَكَىْ

(She) cried

bakat

بَكَتْ

D

U

A

L

(You) cried

bakaytumaa

بَكَيْتُمَاْ

(They masc.) cried

bakayaa

بَكَيَاْ

(They fem.) cried

bakataa

بَكَتَاْ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) cried

bakaynaa

بَكَيْنَاْ

(You masc.) cried

bakaytum

بَكَيْتُمْ

(You fem.) cried

bakaytunn(a)

بَكَيْتُنَّ

(They masc.) cried

bakaw

بَكَوْا

(They fem.) cried

bakayn(a)

بَكَيْنَ

 

►Forms Other Than Form I

 

Defective verbs with more than three letters (i.e. forms other than form I, verbs with additional letters or quadriliteral roots) always end with a weak 'alif that looks like this:

 ى

This weak 'alif will be always changed to y when there is need to change, regardless of its true origin.

The conjugation of these verbs is not any different from what was mentioned for form I verbs ending with ى .

Example:

 اِنْتَهَىْ

 'intahaa

(He) ended, finished

The root is:  ن هـ يN H Y I

 

 الْمَاْضِيْPerfective  //  انْتَهَىْ : اِفْتَعَلَ

(Form VIII, Active Voice)

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) finished

'intahayt(u)

اِنْتَهَيْتُ

(You masc.) finished

'intahayt(a)

اِنْتَهَيْتَ

(You fem.) finished

'intahayti

اِنْتَهَيْتِ

(He) finished

'intahaa

اِنْتَهَىْ

(She) finished

'intahat

اِنْتَهَتْ

D

U

A

L

(You) finished

'intahaytumaa

اِنْتَهيْتُمَاْ

(They masc.) finished

'intahayaa

اِنْتَهَيَاْ

(They fem.) finished

'intahataa

اِنْتَهَتَاْ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) finished

'intahaynaa

اِنْتَهَيْنَاْ

(You masc.) finished

'intahaytum

اِنْتَهَيْتُمْ

(You fem.) finished

'intahaytunn(a)

اِنْتَهَيْتُنَّ

(They masc.) finished

'intahaw

اِنْتَهَوْا

(They fem.) finished

'intahayn(a)

اِنْتَهَيْنَ

 

Endings of Perfective Defective Verbs

(3rd Person Masculine Singular)

Form I

fa"iw(a)

-iy(a)

ـِيَ

fa"iy(a)

fa"uw(a)

-uw(a)

ـُوَ

fa"uy(a)

fa"aw(a)

-aa

ـَاْ

fa"ay(a)

-aa

ـَىْ

Other Forms

-aa

ـَىْ

 

Conjugation of Perfective Defective Verbs

 

 

1st person

2nd person

3rd person feminine plural

3rd masculine dual

3rd person feminine singular

 3rd person feminine dual

Masculine plural

Form I

fa"il(a)

-iy-suffix

-iy-suffix

----uw

fa"ul(a)

-uw-suffix

-uw-suffix

----uw

fa"aw(a)

-aw-suffix

----suffix

----aw

fa"ay(a)

-ay-suffix

----suffix

----aw

Other Forms

-ay-suffix

----suffix

----aw

 

 

IV. Enfolding Verbs

Enfolding verbs are two types:

  • Verbs that have a middle and final weak original letters C-C-C

  • Verbs that have a first and final weak original letters C-C-C

The first type enfolds the definitions of both hollow and defective verbs, yet it is always treated as a defective verb only, and the middle weak letter is treated as if it were a sound letter.

Example:

هَوَىْ

hawaa

(He) fell

The root is :  هـ و يH W Y I

 

 الْمَاْضِيْ  Perfective  //  هَوَىْ : فَـعَـلَ

(Form I, Active Voice)

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) fell

hawayt(u)

هَوَيْتُ

(You masc.) fell

hawayt(a)

هَوَيْتَ

(You fem.) fell

hawayti

هَوَيْتِ

(He) fell

hawaa  

هَوَىْ

(She) fell

hawat

هَوَتْ

D

U

A

L

(You) fell

hawaytumaa

هَوَيْتُمَاْ

(They masc.) fell

hawayaa

هَوَيَاْ

(They fem.) fell

hawataa

هَوَتَاْ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) fell

hawaynaa

هَوَيْنَاْ

(You masc.) fell

hawaytum

هَوَيْتُمْ

(You fem.) fell

hawaytunn(a)

هَوَيْتُنَّ

(They masc.) fell

hawaw

هَوَوْا

(They fem.) fell

hawayn(a)

هَوَيْنَ

 

The second type of the enfolding verbs enfolds the definitions of both Mithaal and defective verbs. These verbs get the dealing of both Mithaal and defective verbs together. However, since that Mithaal verbs conjugate regularly in the perfective, conjugating enfolding verbs will be very much like conjugating defective verbs.

Example:

  وَفَىْ

 wafaa

(He) fulfilled

The root is :  و ف يW F Y I

 

 الْمَاْضِيْ  Perfective  //  وَفَىْ : فَـعَـلَ

(Form I, Active Voice)

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) fulfilled

wafayt(u)

وَفَيْتُ

(You masc.) fulfilled

wafayt(a)

وَفَيْتَ

(You fem.) fulfilled

wafayti

وَفَيْتِ

(He) fulfilled

wafaa  

وَفَىْ

(She) fulfilled

wafat

وَفَتْ

D

U

A

L

(You) fulfilled

wafaytumaa

وَفَيْتُمَاْ

(They masc.) fulfilled

wafayaa

وَفَيَاْ

(They fem.) fulfilled

wafataa

وَفَتَاْ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) fulfilled

wafaynaa

وَفَيْنَاْ

(You masc.) fulfilled

wafaytum

وَفَيْتُمْ

(You fem.) fulfilled

wafaytunn(a)

وَفَيتُنَّ

(They masc.) fulfilled

wafaw

وَفَوْا

(They fem.) fulfilled

wafayn(a)

وَفَيْنَ

 

 

Enfolding Verbs

Root: C-C-C

Treat as defective verbs

Root: C-C-C

Treat as Mithaal & defective verbs

Where C is a sound consonant, and C is a weak consonant.

 

 

Exercise

 

(He) escaped (intr.)

فَرَّ

(He) admitted

أَقَرَّ

(He) stood, stopped

وَقَفَ

(He) won

origin: فَوَزَ

فَاْزَ

(He) feared

origin: خَوِفَ

خَاْفَ

(He) rested, became relived

اِرْتَاْحَ

(He) rose, ascended

عَلا

(He) remained, stayed

بَقِيَ

(He) bought

اِشْتَرَىْ

(He) bent (intr.)

اِلْتَوَىْ

(He) protected

وَقَىْ

 

Based on these verbs, can you translate the following to Arabic?

(you need not to translate the pronouns in parenthesis)

 

(You sing. masc.) escaped

(They plu. masc.) escaped

(We) escaped

(We) admitted

(You plu. masc.) admitted

(They dual fem.) admitted

(They plu. fem.) stood

(She) won

(you sing. fem.) won

(I) won

(We) feared

(They dual masc.) feared

(You dual) feared

(I) rested

(They plu. fem.) rested

(They plu. masc.) rested

(We) ascended

(They plu. masc.) ascended

(She) ascended

(They dual) ascended

(You dual) stayed

(I) stayed

(She) stayed

(They plu. masc.) stayed

(You sing. fem.) bought

(She) bought

(We) bent

(She) bent

(They plu. masc.) bent

(You sing. masc.) protected

(She) protected

(They plu. masc.) protected

 

Answers

 

(You sing. masc.) escaped

فَرَرْتَ

(They plu. masc.) escaped

فَرُّوْا

(We) escaped

فَرَرْنَاْ

(We) admitted

أَقْرَرْنَاْ

(You plu. masc.) admitted

أَقْرَرْتُمْ

(They dual fem.) admitted

أَقَرَّتَاْ

(They plu. fem.) stood

وَقَفْنَ

(She) won

فَاْزَتْ

(You sing. fem.) won

فُزْتِ

(I) won

فُزْتُ

(We) feared

خِفْنَاْ

(They dual masc.) feared

خَاْفَاْ

(You dual) feared

خِفْتُمَاْ

(I) rested

اِرْتَحْتُ

(They plu. fem.) rested

اِرْتَحْنَ

(They plu. masc.) rested

اِرْتَاْحُوْا

(We) ascended

عَلَوْنَاْ

(They plu. masc.) ascended

عَلَوْا

(She) ascended

عَلَتْ

(They dual) ascended

عَلَوَاْ

(You dual) stayed

بَقِيْتُمَاْ

(I) stayed

بَقِيْتُ

(She) stayed

بَقِيَتْ

(They plu. masc.) stayed

بَقُوْا

(You sing. fem.) bought

اِشْتَرَيْتِ

(She) bought

اِشْتَرَتْ

(We) bent

اِلْتَوَيْنَاْ

(She) bent

اِلْتَوَتْ

(They plu. masc.) bent

اِلْتَوَوْا

(You sing. masc.) protected

وَقَيْتَ

(She) protected

وَقَتْ

(They plu. masc.) protected

وَقَوْا

 

 

 

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