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  Arabic Online

ARABIC ONLINE

        اللّغة العربيّة    

Arabic Online

 

• Welcome!

• Varieties of Arabic

• Alphabet

• Pronunciation
• Words
• Vowels
• Reading out

• Syllables

• Stress

• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Roots

• Sibawayh's phonology

• Historical phonology

• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

• Dual Nouns

• Plural Nouns EDITED

• Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

• Feminine Plural Nouns

• Irregular Plural Nouns
• Articles

• Case Inflection

• Case Endings

• The Six Nouns

• Noonation

• Adjectives

• Genitive Construction

• Am/Is/Are Sentences

• Verbs

• Irregular Verbs

• Verb Forms

• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

• Irregular Perfective Conjugation

• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

• Moods

• Subjunctive Mood

• Jussive Mood

• Mood Signs

• Energetic Mood

• Imperative Mood

• Passive Voice

• Passive Perfective Verbs

• Passive Imperfective Verbs

• Passive of Irregular Verbs

• Subject Pronouns

• Object Pronouns

• Demonstratives

• Relative Pronouns

• Sentences

• To Have

• Incomplete Verbs

• Frozen Verbs

• Verb-Like Particles

• Negation

• Present Negative

• Past Negative

• Future Negative

• Negation+Exclusion Style

• Interrogation

• Yes/No Questions

• Interrogative Pronouns

• Polite Request

• Introductory Particles

• Infinitival/Indefinite maa

• Prepositions

• Conjunctions

• Adverbs

• Inactive Particles

• Ablative Particles

• Vocative Particles

• Exclamatory Style

• Praise & Disparagement

• Derived Nouns

• Verbal Nouns

• Active Participles

• Passive Participles

• Participle-like Adjectives

• Comparatives

• Place-nouns

• Time-nouns

• Tool-nouns

• Attributives

• Diminutives

• Vocabulary

• Dialects

• Survival Phrases

 

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Arabic Sentences (continued)

 

Verbal Sentences

 A verbal sentence  الْجُمْلَةُ الْفِعْلِيَّةُis a sentence that starts with the verb and the subject follows. The subject can be a noun, a pronoun, a demonstrative, or a relative clause.

The defining property of a verbal sentence is that the verb precedes the subject. There are more than one possibility for verbal sentences in the presence of an object, an adverb, a prepositional phrase, etc.

The standard usual structure is:

Standard Structure of Verbal Sentences

Verb

Subject

Others

Read

the boy

his book

Object

Read

the boy

fast

Adverb

Read

the boy

in the library

Prepositional Phrase

 

 The other possible structures for verbal sentences are more rare:

Alternative Structure For Nominal Sentences

Others

Verb

Subject

in the library

read

the boy

 

Alternative Structure For Nominal Sentences

Others

Verb

Subject

Others

in the library

read

the boy

his book

 

Alternative Structure For Nominal Sentences

Verb

Others

Subject

Read

in the library

the boy

 

The main point is that the verb always precedes the subject in verbal sentences.

 

Subjects of Verbal Sentences

Subjects in verbal sentences may not be always showing up. There can be apparent, attached, and hiding subjects in verbal sentences.

 

I. Apparent Singular Subjects

 

Verb - Subject - Object

يَقْرَأُ الْوَلَدُ كِتَاْبَهُ

yaqra'(u) ('a)l-walad(u) kitaaba-h(u)

= read the boy (the) book (of) him

Translation: the boy reads his book

 

Compare this sentence with its nominal alternative, in which the subject is the stressed element:

Subject - Verb - Object

الْوَلَدُ يَقْرَأُ كِتَاْبَهُ

'al-walad(u) yaqra'(u) kitaaba-h(u)

= the boy reads (the) book (of) him

Translation: THE BOY reads his book

 

More examples on verbal sentences:

 

Verb - Subject - Adverb

كَاْنَتِ الْسَّمَاْءُ صَاْفِيَةً

kaanat(i) ('a)s-samaa'(u) saafiya(tan)

= was/existed the sky clearly

Translation: the sky was clear

*The verb be in Arabic requires an adverb after it rather than an adjective like in English. This is only true when the verb appears but not when it is not apparent (i.e. in the present tense). Such verbs are called in Arabic the incomplete verbs الأَفْعالُ النَّاْقِصَةُ .

 

Verb - Subject - Adverb

كَاْنَ هَذَاْ يَوْمًا عَصِيْبًا

kaan(a) haathaa yawma(n) "aseeba(n)

 = was this a day a hard

Translation: this was a hard day

 

 

Verb - Subject - Adverb

سَيَكُوْنُ مُحَمَّدٌ هُنَاْ غَدًا

sa-yakoon(u) muhammad(un) hunaa rada(n)

= will be Muhammad here tomorrow

Translation: Muhammad will be here tomorrow

 

 

Verb - Attached Object - Subject

يَسُرُّنِيْ أَنَّكَ هُنَاْ

yasurru-nee 'anna-k(a) hunaa

= please me that you (are) here

Translation: I am glad that you are here

 

We mentioned that sentences which begin with an indefinite word, such as "a man is here" are not usually used in Arabic and that the demonstrative "there" would be usually used for such sentences.

Example, a nominal sentence:

هُنَاْكَ رَجُلٌ بِالْبَاْبِ

hunaak(a) rajul(un) bi-l-baab(i)

= there (is) a man by the door

Translation: there is a man at the door

 

If we wanted to change this sentence to the past tense, we can NOT say "there was a man at the door." To change the tense of sentences which begin in demonstratives in this manner from the present to the past, a verbal sentence is usually used.

Example:

كَاْنَ هُنَاْكَ رَجُلٌ بِالْبَاْبِ

kaan(a) hunaak(a) rajul(un) bi-l-baab(i)

 = was there a man by the door

Translation: there was a man at the door

 

كَاْنَ ثَمَّةَ أَحَدٌ مَاْ

kaan(a) thammat(a) 'ahad(un) maa

= was there one-some

Translation: someone was there

 

The same thing about these sentences is true for the future tense. To change the tense of these sentences to the future, a verbal sentence is usually used. Sentences of the type "there will be" are NOT the usual way of doing it.

Example:

سَيَكُوْنُ هُنَاْكَ الْكَثِيْرُ مِنَ المَدْعُوِّيْنَ

sa-yakoon(u) hunaak(a) ('a)l-katheer(u) min(a) ('a)l-mad"uwween(a)

 = will be there many of the invited

Translation: there will be many guests

 

سَيَكُوْنُ ثَمَّةَ كَاْرِثَةٌ

sa-yakoon(u) thammat(a) kaarithat(un)

= will be there a disaster

Translation: there will be a disaster

 

 

 

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