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  Arabic Online

ARABIC ONLINE

        اللّغة العربيّة    

Arabic Online

 

• Welcome!

• Varieties of Arabic

• Alphabet

• Pronunciation
• Words
• Vowels
• Reading out

• Syllables

• Stress

• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Roots

• Sibawayh's phonology

• Historical phonology

• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

• Dual Nouns

• Plural Nouns EDITED

• Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

• Feminine Plural Nouns

• Irregular Plural Nouns
• Articles

• Case Inflection

• Case Endings

• The Six Nouns

• Noonation

• Adjectives

• Genitive Construction

• Am/Is/Are Sentences

• Verbs

• Irregular Verbs

• Verb Forms

• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

• Irregular Perfective Conjugation

• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

• Moods

• Subjunctive Mood

• Jussive Mood

• Mood Signs

• Energetic Mood

• Imperative Mood

• Passive Voice

• Passive Perfective Verbs

• Passive Imperfective Verbs

• Passive of Irregular Verbs

• Subject Pronouns

• Object Pronouns

• Demonstratives

• Relative Pronouns

• Sentences

• To Have

• Incomplete Verbs

• Frozen Verbs

• Verb-Like Particles

• Negation

• Present Negative

• Past Negative

• Future Negative

• Negation+Exclusion Style

• Interrogation

• Yes/No Questions

• Interrogative Pronouns

• Polite Request

• Introductory Particles

• Infinitival/Indefinite maa

• Prepositions

• Conjunctions

• Adverbs

• Inactive Particles

• Ablative Particles

• Vocative Particles

• Exclamatory Style

• Praise & Disparagement

• Derived Nouns

• Verbal Nouns

• Active Participles

• Passive Participles

• Participle-like Adjectives

• Comparatives

• Place-nouns

• Time-nouns

• Tool-nouns

• Attributives

• Diminutives

• Vocabulary

• Dialects

• Survival Phrases

 

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Arabic Sentences (continued)

Nominal Sentences

 

Pronoun Subjects

Sentences which start with subject pronouns are nominal sentences. When there is a verb after the subject pronoun, the pronoun can be kept or omitted. Third person subject pronouns will always have an emphatic function if they were kept before the verb, the other pronouns (1st & 2nd person) can and cannot have an emphatic function depending on the intonation.

 

Subject - Verb

أَنَاْ أَعْرِفُ

'anaa 'a"rif(u)

= I know

Translation: I know

In this sentence, the pronoun (a 1st person pronoun) is not emphatic unless the intonation stressed it.

 

Verb - Hiding Subject

أَعْرِفُ

'a"rif(u)

= know (I)

Translation: I know

The second sentence is a verbal sentence because the subject (a hiding pronoun after the verb) does not precede the verb.

 

Subject - Predicate

أَنَاْ جَاْهِزٌ

'anaa jaahiz(un)

= I (am) ready

Translation: I am ready

 

 

Subject - Verb - Adverb

أَنَاْ كُنْتُ جَاْهِزًا

'anaa kunt(u) jaahiza(n)

= I was ready

Translation: I was ready

 

 

Verb - Attached Subject - Adverb

كُنْتُ جَاْهِزًا

kunt(u) jaahiza(n)

= was (I) ready

Translation: I was ready

 

 

Subject - Verb - Adverb

أَنَاْ سَأَكُوْنُ جَاْهِزًا

'anaa sa-'akoon(u) jaahiza(n)

= I will be ready

Translation: I will be ready

 

 

Verb - Hiding Pronoun - Adverb

سَأَكُوْنُ جَاْهِزًا

sa-'akoon(u) jaahiza(n)

= will be (I) ready

Translation: I will be ready

 

 

Subject - Verb - Object

أَنْتَ تَتَحَدَّثُ الْعَرَبِيَّةَ !0

'ant(a) tatahaddath(u) ('a)l-"arabiyya(ta)

= you speak the Arabic

Translation: you speak Arabic!

 

 

Subject - Verb - Object

أَنْتُمْ لا تُصَدِّقُوْنَنِيْ

'antum laa tusaddiqoona-nee

 = you not believe me

Translation: you don't believe me

 

 

Subject - Verb - Object

هُوَ فَعَلَ هَذَاْ

huwa fa"al(a) haathaa

= he did this

Translation: HE did this

*Third person pronoun: always emphatic.

 

Subject - Verb - Object

هُمَاْ قَاْلَتَاْ هَذَاْ

humaa qaalataa haathaa

= they (dual fem.) said this

Translation: THEY said this

 

 

Subject - Predicate

هُمْ هُنَاْكَ

hum hunaak(a)

= they (plu. masc.) (are) there

Translation: they are THERE

Here, even though the pronoun is a 3rd person pronoun the stress came on the predicate because this is a be-sentence without a verb, so the stress falls on the predicate. We mentioned this earlier.

 

Nominal sentences can begin with other types of nouns.

 

Example, a demonstrative:

هَذَاْ يَوْمٌ جَمِيْلٌ

haathaa yawm(un) jameel(un)

 

= this (is) a day a beautiful

Translation: this is a nice day

 

A relative pronoun:

مَنْ زَرَعَ حَصَدَ

man zara"(a) hasad(a)

 = who planted harvested

Translation: he who plants harvests

or: he who planted harvested

*Note that perfective verbs in Arabic can be used as subjunctive verbs, which is somewhat similar to English.

 

Others:

مَتَىْ مَاَْ أَتَيْتَ تَجِدُنِيْ

mataa-maa 'atayt(a) tajidu-nee

= whenever (you) came (you) will find me

Translation: whenever you come you will find me

 

 

 

A summary for nominal sentences:

 

The Subject The Verb The Stress
A noun Any verb except "be" in present tense On the subject
A demonstrative
A pronoun 1st & 2nd person: changeable
3rd person: on the subject
A noun "Be" in present tense

(not apparent)

On the predicate
A demonstrative
A pronoun

 

 

 

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