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  Arabic Online

ARABIC ONLINE

        اللّغة العربيّة    

Arabic Online

 

• Welcome!

• Varieties of Arabic

• Alphabet

• Pronunciation
• Words
• Vowels
• Reading out

• Syllables

• Stress

• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Roots

• Sibawayh's phonology

• Historical phonology

• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

• Dual Nouns

• Plural Nouns EDITED

• Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

• Feminine Plural Nouns

• Irregular Plural Nouns
• Articles

• Case Inflection

• Case Endings

• The Six Nouns

• Noonation

• Adjectives

• Genitive Construction

• Am/Is/Are Sentences

• Verbs

• Irregular Verbs

• Verb Forms

• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

• Irregular Perfective Conjugation

• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

• Moods

• Subjunctive Mood

• Jussive Mood

• Mood Signs

• Energetic Mood

• Imperative Mood

• Passive Voice

• Passive Perfective Verbs

• Passive Imperfective Verbs

• Passive of Irregular Verbs

• Subject Pronouns

• Object Pronouns

• Demonstratives

• Relative Pronouns

• Sentences

• To Have

• Incomplete Verbs

• Frozen Verbs

• Verb-Like Particles

• Negation

• Present Negative

• Past Negative

• Future Negative

• Negation+Exclusion Style

• Interrogation

• Yes/No Questions

• Interrogative Pronouns

• Polite Request

• Introductory Particles

• Infinitival/Indefinite maa

• Prepositions

• Conjunctions

• Adverbs

• Inactive Particles

• Ablative Particles

• Vocative Particles

• Exclamatory Style

• Praise & Disparagement

• Derived Nouns

• Verbal Nouns

• Active Participles

• Passive Participles

• Participle-like Adjectives

• Comparatives

• Place-nouns

• Time-nouns

• Tool-nouns

• Attributives

• Diminutives

• Vocabulary

• Dialects

• Survival Phrases

 

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Pronouns (continued)

 

۞ Object Pronouns Attached to Particles

Particles to which object pronouns can be attached are two types, the verb-like particles, which we already talked about, and the ablative particles.

The ablative particles حُرُوْفُ الجَرِّ are prepositions. Pronouns attached to them will be, just like any other noun after an ablative particle, in the ablative case or 'aj-jarr.

Examples:

Particle: bi- بِـ  = in / by / with

Meaning

Example

in / by / with me

b-ee

بِيْ

in / by / with you (sing. masc.)

bi-k(a)

بِكَ

in / by / with you (sing. fem.)

bi-k(i)

بِكِ

in / by / with him

bi-h(i)

بِهِ

in / by / with her

bi-haa

بِهَاْ

in / by / with them (dual)

bi-kumaa

بِكُمَاْ

in / by / with them (dual)

bi-himaa

بِهِمَاْ

in / by / with us

bi-naa

بِنَاْ

in / by / with you (plu. masc.)

bi-kum

بِكُمْ

in / by / with you (plu. fem.)

bi-kunn(a)

بِكُنَّ

in / by / with them (plu. masc.)

bi-him

بِهِمْ

in / by / with them (plu. fem.)

bi-hinn(a)

بِهِنَّ

Remember that the hu of 3rd person pronouns must be turned to hi when the pronoun is preceded by one of the sounds: -i , -ee , or -ay .

Another example:

Particle: fee  فِيْ  = in

Meaning

Example

in me

fee-y(a)

فِيَّ

in you (sing. masc.)

fee-k(a)

فِيْكَ

in you (sing. fem.)

fee-k(i)

فِيْكِ

in him

fee-h(i)

فِيْهِ

in her

fee-haa

فِيْهَاْ

in them (dual)

fee-kumaa

فِيْكُمَاْ

in them (dual)

fee-himaa

فِيْهِمَاْ

in us

fee-naa

فِيْنَاْ

in you (plu. masc.)

fee-kum

فِيْكُمْ

in you (plu. fem.)

fee-kunn(a)

فِيْكُنَّ

in them (plu. masc.)

fee-him

فِيْهِمْ

in them (plu. fem.)

fee-hinn(a)

فِيْهِنَّ

 

We mentioned before that the two particles (مِنْ & عَنْ) will be attached to the -nee form of the first person singular object pronoun.

From me min-nee

مِنِّيْ

About me "an-nee

عَنِّيْ

 

Particle: min  مِنْ  = from

Meaning

Example

From me

min-nee

مِنِّيْ

From you (sing. masc.)

min-k(a)

مِنْكَ

From you (sing. fem.)

min-k(i)

مِنْكِ

From him

min-h(u)

مِنْهُ

From her

min-haa

مِنْهَاْ

From them (dual)

min-kumaa

مِنْكُمَاْ

From them (dual)

min-humaa

مِنْهُمَاْ

From us

min-naa

مِنَّاْ

From you (plu. masc.)

min-kum

مِنْكُمْ

From you (plu. fem.)

min-kunn(a)

مِنْكُنَّ

From them (plu. masc.)

min-hum

مِنْهُمْ

From them (plu. fem.)

min-hunn(a)

مِنْهُنَّ

 

Particle: "an  عَنْ  = about

Meaning

Example

About me

"an-nee

عَنِّيْ

About you (sing. masc.)

"an-k(a)

عَنْكَ

About you (sing. fem.)

"an-k(i)

عَنْكِ

About him

"an-h(u)

عَنْهُ

About her

"an-haa

عَنْهَاْ

About them (dual)

"an-kumaa

عَنْكُمَاْ

About them (dual)

"an-humaa

عَنْهُمَاْ

About us

"an-naa

عَنَّاْ

About you (plu. masc.)

"an-kum

عَنْكُمْ

About you (plu. fem.)

"an-kunn(a)

عَنْكُنَّ

About them (plu. masc.)

"an-hum

عَنْهُمْ

About them (plu. fem.)

"an-hunn(a)

عَنْهُنَّ

 

The two particles إِلَىْ & عَلَىْ  will require modification when attached to object pronouns. The last long vowel 'alif -aa (a.k.a shortened 'alif ) will be changed to -ay when attaching the pronoun. That is, the 'alif will be changed to yaa'<.

 

Particle: 'ilaa  إِلَىْ  = to

Meaning

Example

To me

'ilay-y(a)

إِلَيَّ

To you (sing. masc.)

'ilay-k(a)

إِلَيْكَ

To you (sing. fem.)

'ilay-k(i)

إِلَيْكِ

To him

'ilay-h(i)

إِلَيْهِ

To her

'ilay-haa

إِلَيْهَاْ

To them (dual)

'ilay-kumaa

إِلَيْكُمَاْ

To them (dual)

'ilay-himaa

إِلَيْهِمَاْ

To us

'ilay-naa

إِلَيْنَاْ

To you (plu. masc.)

'ilay-kum

إِلَيْكُمْ

To you (plu. fem.)

'ilay-kunn(a)

إِلَيْكُنَّ

To them (plu. masc.)

'ilay-him

إِلَيْهِمْ

To them (plu. fem.)

'ilay-hinn(a)

إِلَيْهِنَّ

 

 

Particle: "alaa  عَلَىْ  = on

Meaning

Example

On me

"alay-y(a)

عَلَيَّ

On you (sing. masc.)

"alay-k(a)

عَلَيْكَ

On you (sing. fem.)

"alay-k(i)

عَلَيْكِ

On him

"alay-h(i)

عَلَيْهِ

On her

"alay-haa

عَلَيْهَاْ

On them (dual)

"alay-kumaa

عَلَيْكُمَاْ

On them (dual)

"alay-himaa

عَلَيْهِمَاْ

On us

"alay-naa

عَلَيْنَاْ

On you (plu. masc.)

"alay-kum

عَلَيْكُمْ

On you (plu. fem.)

"alay-kunn(a)

عَلَيْكُنَّ

On them (plu. masc.)

"alay-him

عَلَيْهِمْ

On them (plu. fem.)

"alay-hinn(a)

عَلَيْهِنَّ

 

The last Arabic particle that can be attached to pronouns is li- لِـ

This particle will be changed to la- لَـ  when attached to object pronouns.

 

Particle: li- لِـ  = for / to

Meaning

Example

for / to me

l-ee

لِيْ

for / to you (sing. masc.)

la-k(a)

لَكَ

for / to you (sing. fem.)

la-k(i)

لَكِ

for / to him

la-h(u)

لَهُ

for / to her

la-haa

لَهَاْ

for / to them (dual)

la-kumaa

لَكُمَاْ

for / to them (dual)

la-humaa

لَهُمَاْ

for / to us

la-naa

لَنَاْ

for / to you (plu. masc.)

la-kum

لَكُمْ

for / to you (plu. fem.)

la-kunn(a)

لَكُنَّ

for / to them (plu. masc.)

la-hum

لَهُمْ

for / to them (plu. fem.)

la-hunn(a)

لَهُنَّ

 

Why so many variations in pronouns?

This is because Classical Arabic was made out of many different dialects of Arabic which were all spoken in pre-Islamic Arabia. The irregularities seen with pronouns reflect the differences that existed between those dialects.

The differences can still be seen today in the spoken dialects of Arabic, whose diversity was primarily determined by the diversity of the dialects of old Arab tribes.

 

 

 

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