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        اللّغة العربيّة    

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Demonstratives (continued)

 

3. Far Demonstratives

Far demonstratives contain a letter laam ل  that is called "laam of distance"  لامُ الْبُعْدِ.

For demonstratives to contain this laam, they must also contain the previously described "vocative kaaf"  كَاْفُ الْخِطَاْبِ of middle demonstratives.

The laam of distance can be attached only to three of the basic demonstratives, thus there are only three far demonstratives in Arabic.

 

Far Demonstratives

أَسْمَاْءُ الإِشَاْرَةِ مَعَ كَاْفِ الْخِطَاْبِ وَلامِ الْبُعْدِ

That (masc. sing.)

thaalik(a)

ذَلِكَ

That (fem. sing.)

tilk(a)

تِلْكَ

Those (plu.)

'ulaalik(a)

أُولالِكَ

 

 

 The "vocative kaaf" in these demonstratives will be changeable according to which person is being addressed, like we explained before.

 

Masc. Sing. Far Demonstrative

"That"

Addressing masc. sing.

thaalik(a)

ذَلِكَ

Addressing fem. sing.

thaalik(i)

ذَلِكِ

Addressing dual

thaalikumaa

ذَلِكُمَاْ

Addressing masc. plu.

thaalikum

ذَلِكُمْ

Addressing fem. plu.

thaalikunn(a)

ذَلِكُنَّ

 

Fem. Sing. Far Demonstrative

"That"

Addressing masc. sing.

tilk(a)

تِلْكَ

Addressing fem. sing.

tilk(i)

تِلْكِ

Addressing dual

tilkumaa

تِلْكُمَاْ

Addressing masc. plu.

tilkum

تِلْكُمْ

Addressing fem. plu.

tilkunn(a)

تِلْكُنَّ

 

Plu. Far Demonstrative

"Those"

Addressing masc. sing.

'ulaalik(a)

أُولالِكَ

Addressing fem. sing.

'ulaalik(i)

أُولالِكِ

Addressing dual

'ulaalikumaa

أُولالِكُمَاْ

Addressing masc. plu.

'ulaalikum

أُولالِكُمْ

Addressing fem. plu.

'ulaalikunn(a)

أُولالِكُنَّ

 

The far demonstrative أُولالِكَ is not usually used in Modern Standard Arabic. When translating the English plural far demonstrative "those" to Arabic, it is usual to use the middle demonstrative أُولائِكَ . This is, of course, only when the plural demonstrative (whether near or far) refers to persons but not to objects. Objects will be referred to by feminine singular demonstratives. This was mentioned in the section on plural types.

So the final forms for far demonstratives will be:

That (masc. sing.)

thaalik(a)

ذَلِكَ

That (fem. sing.)

tilk(a)

تِلْكَ

Those

'ulaa'ik(a)

أُولَئِكَ

 

Example:

ذَلِكَ مُحَمَّدٌ

thaalik(a) muhammad(un)

 

= That (is) Muhammad

Translation: that is Muhammad

 

تِلْكَ هِيَ الْحَقِيْقَةُ

tilk(a) hiy(a) ('a)l-haqeeqa(tu)

= that she (is) the truth (fem.)

Translation: that is the truth

hiy(a) was necessary here to distinguish the phrase from "that truth." 

 

أُولَئِكَ هُمْ أَصْدِقَاْئِيْ

'ulaa'ik(a) hum 'asdiqaa'-ee

 

= these/those they (are) (the) friends (of) me

Translation: these/those are my friends

hum was not necessary here.

 

أُولَئِكَ أَصْدِقَاْئِيْ

'ulaa'ik(a) 'asdiqaa'-ee

 

= these/those (are) (the) friends (of) me

Translation: these/those are my friends

 

تِلْكَ الْمُوْسِيْقَىْ جَمِيْلَةٌ

tilk(a) ('a)l-mooseeqaa jameela(tun)

 

= that the music (is) nice

Translation: that music is nice

 

تِلْكَ هِيَ الْمُوْسِيْقَىْ الْجَمِيْلَةُ

tilk(a) hiy(a) ('a)l-mooseeqaa ('a)l-jameela(tu)

 

= that she (is) the music the nice

Translation: that is the nice music

 

 

Some combinations involving demonstratives:

 

Therefore

This is why

li-haathaa

= for this

لِهَذَاْ
li-thaalik(a)

= for that

لِذَلِكَ
Nevertheless

Even with that

ma"(a) haathaa

= with this

مَعَ هَذَاْ
ma"(a) thaalik(a)

= with that

مَعَ ذَلِكَ

 

دَرَسَ وَلِهَذَاْ نَجَحَ

daras(a) wa-li-haathaa najah(a)

 

= (he) studied and for this (he) succeeded

Translation: he studied, therefore he passed

 

مَاْ دَرَسَ وَمَعَ ذَلِكَ نَجَحَ !

maa daras(a) wa-ma"(a) thaalik(a) najah(a)

 

= not (he) studied and with that (he) succeeded

Translation: he didn't study but still he passed!

 

Other combinations:

 

ka-haathaa

= like this

كَهَذَاْ

ka-thaalik(a)

= like that

كَذَلِكَ

bi-haathaa

= by this

بِهَذَاْ

bi-thaalik(a)

= by that

بِذَلِكَ

 

 

 

 

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