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  Arabic Online

ARABIC ONLINE

        اللّغة العربيّة    

Arabic Online

 

• Welcome!

• Varieties of Arabic

• Alphabet

• Pronunciation
• Words
• Vowels
• Reading out

• Syllables

• Stress

• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Roots

• Sibawayh's phonology

• Historical phonology

• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

• Dual Nouns

• Plural Nouns EDITED

• Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

• Feminine Plural Nouns

• Irregular Plural Nouns
• Articles

• Case Inflection

• Case Endings

• The Six Nouns

• Noonation

• Adjectives

• Genitive Construction

• Am/Is/Are Sentences

• Verbs

• Irregular Verbs

• Verb Forms

• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

• Irregular Perfective Conjugation

• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

• Moods

• Subjunctive Mood

• Jussive Mood

• Mood Signs

• Energetic Mood

• Imperative Mood

• Passive Voice

• Passive Perfective Verbs

• Passive Imperfective Verbs

• Passive of Irregular Verbs

• Subject Pronouns

• Object Pronouns

• Demonstratives

• Relative Pronouns

• Sentences

• To Have

• Incomplete Verbs

• Frozen Verbs

• Verb-Like Particles

• Negation

• Present Negative

• Past Negative

• Future Negative

• Negation+Exclusion Style

• Interrogation

• Yes/No Questions

• Interrogative Pronouns

• Polite Request

• Introductory Particles

• Infinitival/Indefinite maa

• Prepositions

• Conjunctions

• Adverbs

• Inactive Particles

• Ablative Particles

• Vocative Particles

• Exclamatory Style

• Praise & Disparagement

• Derived Nouns

• Verbal Nouns

• Active Participles

• Passive Participles

• Participle-like Adjectives

• Comparatives

• Place-nouns

• Time-nouns

• Tool-nouns

• Attributives

• Diminutives

• Vocabulary

• Dialects

• Survival Phrases

 

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Pronouns (continued)

 

2. Attached Subject Pronouns

These are contained within the declensions that appear at the end of verbs, both perfective and imperfective.

 

1. Perfective Verbs

The declensions of perfective verbs are composed of attached subject pronouns and of marker letters. There are no mood signs for the perfective verbs because these are "built" words that have only one, unchangeable, mood.

 

Attached Subject Pronouns

 ضَمائِرُ الرَّفْعِ المُتَّصِلَةِ

 

Marker

Pronoun

Declension

1st Person 1st person marker تاء الفاعِل -t(u)

ـْتُ

taa'< of the actor
  نا الفاعِلينَ -naa ـْنَاْ
naa of the actors
2nd Person

Masculine marker

تاء الفاعِل -t(a) ـْتَ
taa'< of the actor

Feminine marker

تاء الفاعِل -ti ـْتِ
taa'< of the actor

Dual marker

تاء الفاعِل -tumaa ـْتُمَاْ
taa'< of the actor

Masculine plural marker

تاء الفاعِل -tum ـْتُمْ
taa'< of the actor

Feminine plural marker

تاء الفاعِل -tunn(a) ـْتُنَّ
taa'< of the actor
3rd Person   أَلِف الاثْنَيْنِ -aa ـَاْ
'alif of the two
Feminine taa'< أَلِف الاثْنَيْنِ -ataa ـَتَاْ
'alif of the two
  وَاو الجَماعَة -oo ـُوْا
waaw of the group
  نُوْن النِسْوَة -n(a) ـْنَ
noon of the women

 

2. Imperfective Verbs

Imperfective verb conjugations are two types, the "five verbs," which have suffixes attached to the stem verb, and the rest of the conjugations which have only prefixes but suffixes.

The suffixes of the "five verbs" are composed of attached subject pronouns followed by a letter noon ن which is the indicative mood sign. This noon is a sign only of the indicative mood and it will not appear in the other moods.

There is one exception to what has been mentioned, that is the feminine plural conjugations. These are "built" words that have unchangeable suffix that is composed of a single pronoun-letter.

The attached subject pronouns of the imperfective verbs are:

Attached Subject Pronouns

 ضَمائِرُ الرَّفْعِ المُتَّصِلَةِ

Mood Sign

Pronoun

Declension

Sign of the indicative mood ياء المُخاطَبَة -een(a)

ـِيْنَ

yaa'< of the female vocative
Sign of the indicative mood أَلِف الاثْنَيْنِ -aan(i) ـَاْنِ
'alif of the two
Sign of the indicative mood وَاو الجَماعَة -oon(a) ـُوْنَ
waaw of the group
  نُوْن النِسْوَة -n(a) ـْنَ
noon of the women

 

 

 

Hiding Pronouns

 

Since that not all verbs have declensions that can be deemed subject pronouns, Arab grammarians postulated that there should be an invisible "hiding pronoun" ضَمِيْرٌ مُسْتَتِرٌ after each verb that is without a declension.

 

Hiding Pronoun Verb Without Attached Pronoun
(He) ( هُوَ ) Past: 3rd person sing. masc. فَعَلَ
(She) ( هِيَ ) Past: 3rd person sing. fem. فَعَلَتْ
(I) ( أَنا ) Present: 1st person sing. أَفْعَلُ
(You) ( أًنْتَ ) Present: 2nd person sing. masc. تَفْعَلُ
(He) ( هُوَ ) Present: 3rd person sing. masc.

يَفْعَلُ

(She) ( هِيَ ) Present: 3rd person sing. fem.

تَفْعَلُ

(We) ( نَحْنُ ) Present: 1st person plu./dual

نَفْعَلُ

The ـَتْ at the end of the 3rd person singular feminine past verb is NOT an attached subject pronoun but rather is a feminine marker (still feminine taa'< تَاْءُ التَأْنِيثِ السَّاكِنَةُ ).

If a separate subject pronoun appears after a verb that has an attached subject pronoun, it will be an emphatic pronoun but not a subject.

In Arabic grammar, the 1st and 2nd person hiding pronouns are said to be "obligatory hiding pronouns" مُسْتَتِرَةٌ وُجُوْبًا , there will be always a hiding pronoun after 1st and 2nd person conjugations of verbs without attached subject pronouns, and if a separate subject pronoun appears after them it will be an emphatic pronoun but not a subject.

On the other hand, the 3rd person hiding pronouns are "optionally hiding pronouns" مُسْتَتِرَةٌ جَوَاْزًا . There will be no hiding pronoun if a separate pronoun appears after 3rd person conjugations of verbs without attached subject pronouns.

 

 

 

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