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  Arabic Online

ARABIC ONLINE

        اللّغة العربيّة    

Arabic Online

 

• Welcome!

• Varieties of Arabic

• Alphabet

• Pronunciation
• Words
• Vowels
• Reading out

• Syllables

• Stress

• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Roots

• Sibawayh's phonology

• Historical phonology

• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

• Dual Nouns

• Plural Nouns EDITED

• Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

• Feminine Plural Nouns

• Irregular Plural Nouns
• Articles

• Case Inflection

• Case Endings

• The Six Nouns

• Noonation

• Adjectives

• Genitive Construction

• Am/Is/Are Sentences

• Verbs

• Irregular Verbs

• Verb Forms

• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

• Irregular Perfective Conjugation

• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

• Moods

• Subjunctive Mood

• Jussive Mood

• Mood Signs

• Energetic Mood

• Imperative Mood

• Passive Voice

• Passive Perfective Verbs

• Passive Imperfective Verbs

• Passive of Irregular Verbs

• Subject Pronouns

• Object Pronouns

• Demonstratives

• Relative Pronouns

• Sentences

• To Have

• Incomplete Verbs

• Frozen Verbs

• Verb-Like Particles

• Negation

• Present Negative

• Past Negative

• Future Negative

• Negation+Exclusion Style

• Interrogation

• Yes/No Questions

• Interrogative Pronouns

• Polite Request

• Introductory Particles

• Infinitival/Indefinite maa

• Prepositions

• Conjunctions

• Adverbs

• Inactive Particles

• Ablative Particles

• Vocative Particles

• Exclamatory Style

• Praise & Disparagement

• Derived Nouns

• Verbal Nouns

• Active Participles

• Passive Participles

• Participle-like Adjectives

• Comparatives

• Place-nouns

• Time-nouns

• Tool-nouns

• Attributives

• Diminutives

• Vocabulary

• Dialects

• Survival Phrases

 

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Nouns

Number of Nouns

Plural Nouns

Irregular Plural Nouns (continued)

 

I. Fewness Structures جُمُوْعُ الْقِلَّةِ

These structures are supposed to be used for plurals that refer to no more than ten unites, but this is not obligatory.

 

'af"ul

أَفْعُل

'af"ila(t)

أَفْعِلَة

'af"aal

أَفْعَاْل

fi"la(t)

فِعْلَة

 

In order to be able to use these structures you will need to know the root of the singular noun.

The truth is that there are no real solid rules for when to use each one of these structures, however, there are some general directions that could be mentioned.

 

۞ 'af"ul أَفْعُل

This structure is generally used for the singular nouns that are of the following structures:

 

1. fa"l فَعْل

Examples:

 

Plural

Singular

'anhur

أَنْهُر

nahr

نَهْر

rivers (fem.)

river (masc.)

'abhur

أَبْحُر

bahr

بَحْر

seas (fem.)

sea (masc.)

'ashhur

أَشْهُر

shahr

شَهْر

months (fem.)

month (masc.)

'awjuh

أَوْجُه

wajh

وَجْه

faces / aspects (fem.)

face / aspect (masc.)

 

However, there are many irregularities to this rule.

Examples:

Plural

Singular

quloob

قُلُوْب

qalb

قَلْب

hearts (fem.)

heart (masc.)

huroob

حُرُوْب

harb

حَرْب

wars (fem.)

war (fem.)

shuhoor

شُهُوْر

shahr

شَهْر

months (fem.)

month (masc.)

wujooh

وُجُوْه

wajh

وَجْه

faces / aspects (fem.)

face / aspect (masc.)

'anhaar

أَنْهَاْر

nahr

نَهْر

rivers (fem.)

river (masc.)

bihaar

بِحَاْر

bahr

بَحْر

seas (fem.)

sea (masc.)

kilaab

كِلاب

kalb

كَلْب

dogs (fem.)

dog (masc.)

 

  • Most of the fa"l nouns that have middle weak-letters in their triliteral roots don't follow this rule.

  • Most of the fa"l nouns that haveو  as first letter of their triliteral roots don't follow this rule.

 

Again, it should be known that many nouns can be irregularly pluralized using more than one structure.

 

2. f*"aal / f*"eel / f*"ool

Figurative feminine quadriliteral nouns that have a long vowel as third letter will be pluralized as 'af"ul أَفْعُل.

 

Plural

Singular

'athru"

أَذْرُع

thiraa"

ذِرَاْع

arms (fem.)

arm (fem.)

'aymun

أَيْمُن

yameen

يَمِيْن

right hands (fem.)

right hand (fem.)

 

 

۞ 'af"ila(t) أَفْعِلَة

This structure is generally used for the following singulars:

 

1. f*"aal / f*"eel / f*"ool

Masculine quadriliteral nouns that have a long vowel as their third letter.

 

Plural

Singular

'at"ima(t)

أَطْعِمَة

ta"aam

طَعَاْم

foods (fem.)

food (masc.)

'a"mida(t)

أَعْمِدَة

"amood

عَمُوْد

poles (fem.)

pole (pillar) (masc.)

There are irregularities.

 

2. fa"aal فَعَاْل / fi"aal  فِعَاْل

Provided that the second and the third root-letters be the same, any noun of these structures will be pluralized as 'af"ila(t) أَفْعِلَة .

 

Plural

Singular

'abniya(t)

أَبْنِيَة

binaa'<

بِنَاْء

buildings (fem.)

building (masc.)

'arrifa(t)

أَرْغِفَة

rareef

رَغِيْف

loafs (fem.)

loaf (masc.)

There are irregularities.

 

۞ 'af"aal أَفْعَاْل

This structure is generally used for all the triliteral nouns that do not take the first structure 'af"ul أَفْعُل. This includes:

  • fa"l فَعْل nouns that have a middle weak-letter in their triliteral roots.

  • fa"l فَعْل nouns that haveو  as first letter of their triliteral roots don't follow this rule.

  • Every triliteral noun that is not of the structure fa"l فَعْل .

 

Examples:

 

Plural

Singular

'abwaab

أَبْوَاْب

baab

بَاْب

doors (fem.)

door (masc.)

'awqaat

أَوْقَاْت

waqt

وَقْت

times (fem.)

time (masc.)

'ajdaad

أَجْدَاْد

jadd

جَدّ

grandfathers (masc.)

grandfather (masc.)

'aqlaam

أَقْلام

qalam

قَلَم

pens (fem.)

pen (masc.)

'akbaad

أَكْبَاْد

kabid

كَبِد

livers (fem.)

liver (fem.)

'a"daad

أَعْضَاْد

"adud

عَضُد

upper arms (fem.)

upper arm (masc.)

'asmaa'<

أَسْمَاْء

'ism

اِسْم

names (fem.)

name (masc.)

'a"naab

*أَعْنَاْب

"inab

*عِنَب

grapes (fem.)

grapes (masc.)

'aabaat

آبَاْط*

'Ibit

إِبِط

armpits (fem.)

armpit (masc.)

'aqfaal

أَقْفَاْل

qufl

قُفْل

locks (fem.)

lock (masc.)

'artaab

*أَرْطَاْب

rutab

*رُطَب

unripe dates (fem.)

unripe dates (masc.)

'ahlaam

أَحْلام

hulum

حُلُم

dreams (fem.)

dream (masc.)

*Both the singular and plural nouns here refer to plural fruits (the singular is a singulare tantum noun).

*See: special transformations of hamza(t).

 

۞ fi"la(t) فِعْلَة

This is a rare structure that is used with few nouns.

Examples:

 

Plural

Singular

fitya(t)

فِتْيَة

fataa

فَتَىْ

boys (masc.)  boy (masc.)

sibya(t)

صِبْيَة

sabiyy

صَبِيّ

boys (masc.) boy (masc.)

 

II. Plentifulness Structures جُمُوْعُ الْكَثْرَةِ

Those structures are used for plurals without regard of their numbers. They also enjoy a large deal of irregularity in usage, just like the previous ones.

More information about these structures is to be added later

 

 

Gender of Plural Nouns

 

1) Masculine Plurals

Nouns that end with a masculine plural ending are always masculine words.

 

2) Feminine Plurals

Nouns that end with a feminine plural ending are always feminine words.

 

3) Irregular Plurals

The gender of an irregular plural noun will not always match the gender of its singular. Classically, all irregular plurals were considered and treated as singular feminine nouns, no matter what the gender of the referents were. E.g. one would say "this men" or "this dishes" instead of "these men" and "these dishes" if "men" and "dishes" were irregular plurals. Also one would say "the men does what she promises" instead of "the men do what they promise."

However, irregular plurals of nouns referring to persons (like men and women) had another possibility; such plurals could be treated as regular plural nouns alongside the general rule of treating them as singular feminines.

In the modern language, irregular plurals referring to persons are usually treated as regular plural nouns in terms of grammar, except for declension, where they will still be declined as singulars.

 

Grammatical Treatment of Irregular Plurals
Reference Gender Number

to persons

matches the gender of the referents plural

to persons (classical)

feminine singular
 to objects or animals feminine singular

 

Examples on the gender of irregular plurals:

Plural

Singular

rijaal

رِجَاْل

rajul

رَجُل

men (masc.)

man (masc.)

rijaal

رِجَاْل

rajul

رَجُل

men (fem.)

in classical Arabic

man (masc.)

banaat

بَنَاْت

bint

بِنْت

girls/daughters (fem.)

girl/daughter (fem.)

'awraaq

أَوْرَاْق

waraqa(t)

وَرَقَة

papers (fem.)

paper (fem.)

'aqlaam

أَقْلاَم

qalam

قَلَم

pens (fem.)

pen (masc.)

 

 

Type of Plural

Use

Gender of the plural word

Masculine Plural

  • For nouns that refer to definite male persons

Masculine

Feminine Plural

  • For nouns that refer to female persons

  • For nouns that end with feminine markers

  • For some nouns that refer to feminine or masculine objects

Feminine

Irregular Plural

  • For nouns that refer to persons

Masculine

Feminine

  • For nouns that refer to masculine or feminine objects

Feminine

 

 

 

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