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  Arabic Online


        اللّغة العربيّة    

Arabic Online


• Welcome!

• Varieties of Arabic

• Alphabet

• Pronunciation
• Words
• Vowels
• Reading out

• Syllables

• Stress

• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Roots

• Sibawayh's phonology

• Historical phonology

• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

• Dual Nouns

• Plural Nouns EDITED

• Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

• Feminine Plural Nouns

• Irregular Plural Nouns
• Articles

• Case Inflection

• Case Endings

• The Six Nouns

• Noonation

• Adjectives

• Genitive Construction

• Am/Is/Are Sentences

• Verbs

• Irregular Verbs

• Verb Forms

• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

• Irregular Perfective Conjugation

• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

• Moods

• Subjunctive Mood

• Jussive Mood

• Mood Signs

• Energetic Mood

• Imperative Mood

• Passive Voice

• Passive Perfective Verbs

• Passive Imperfective Verbs

• Passive of Irregular Verbs

• Subject Pronouns

• Object Pronouns

• Demonstratives

• Relative Pronouns

• Sentences

• To Have

• Incomplete Verbs

• Frozen Verbs

• Verb-Like Particles

• Negation

• Present Negative

• Past Negative

• Future Negative

• Negation+Exclusion Style

• Interrogation

• Yes/No Questions

• Interrogative Pronouns

• Polite Request

• Introductory Particles

• Infinitival/Indefinite maa

• Prepositions

• Conjunctions

• Adverbs

• Inactive Particles

• Ablative Particles

• Vocative Particles

• Exclamatory Style

• Praise & Disparagement

• Derived Nouns

• Verbal Nouns

• Active Participles

• Passive Participles

• Participle-like Adjectives

• Comparatives

• Place-nouns

• Time-nouns

• Tool-nouns

• Attributives

• Diminutives

• Vocabulary

• Dialects

• Survival Phrases


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Vowels in Spoken Dialects


Formal Arabic uses six vowels, three short vowels and three long vowels. However, the modern spoken dialects of Arabic use more than those six vowels. I am not sure about the total number of vowels used in all the dialects, but I am going to put here the major ones (and probably these are the ones that matter).


Classical Vowels
Vowel Romanization Sound In Arabic
Short A a attack xَ
Long A aa man


Short I i sit


Long I ee feel ي
Short U u put


Long U oo mood و


Since that modern dialects are not written but only spoken, there are not any rules or standards for writing them down. There are also not any Arabic letters or symbols that represent the modern vowels that are not present in the classical language. Therefore, it is totally arbitrary and up to each person to decide for himself how to write them.

I am not going to invent any new Arabic symbols, I will just use the way of writing that is closer to what happens in real life.


Modern Vowels




In Arabic

Short E



No symbol

Long E







No symbol

Short O



No symbol

Long O





I know that my Romanization of vowels in general is not very methodological, but my purpose was to make it as closer as possible to written English.