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Incomplete Verbs (continued)

Verbs of Approach, Hope, and Proceeding


Those are three classes of incomplete verbs. There is only one difference between these incomplete verbs and the verbs that were mentioned before, which is that these ones must have either a verb or an infinitival phrase to complete their meanings but not anything else.

Another name for these verbs is "kaad(a) and her sisters" كَاْدَ وَأَخَوَاْتُهَاْ . All of these verbs can be both complete and incomplete verbs. The complete senses are not included in our discussion here.


Verbs of Approach


 Verbs of approach أَفْعَاْلُ الْمُقَاْرَبَةِ are verbs that denote the proximity of the predicate. They mean something like "about to" or "almost."

The verb in black is obsolete.

Verbs of Approach

 أَفْعَاْلُ الْمُقَاْرَبَةِ

Manageability Verb
Partially manageable kaad(a) كَاْدَ
Partially manageable 'awshak(a) أَوْشَكَ
Frozen karab(a) كَرَبَ

*Note that the manageability here concerns only the incomplete senses of these verbs.



Verb - Subject - Verb

كَاْدَ الْوَقْتُ يَنْقَضِيْ

kaad(a) ('a)l-waqt(u) yanqadee

= approached the time be concluded

Translation: the time is almost up

or: the time was almost up



Verb - Subject - Verb

يَكَاْدُ الْوَقْتُ يَنْقَضِيْ

yakaad(u) ('a)l-waqt(u) yanqadee

= approaches the time be concluded

Translation: the time is almost up



Verb - Subject - Infinitival Phrase

أَوْشَكَ الْمَطَرُ أَنْ يَهْطِلَ

'awshak(a) ('a)l-matar(u) 'an yahtil(a)

= approached the rain that (he) fall

Translation: the rain is about to fall

An infinitival phrase is a verb preceded by the infinitival particle 'an. A verb after this particle will be always in the subjunctive mood ('an-nasb).


Verb - Subject - Infinitival Phrase

يُوْشِكُ الْمَطَرُ أَنْ يَهْطِلَ

yooshik(u) ('a)l-matar(u) 'an yahtil(a)

= approaches the rain that (he) fall

Translation: the rain is about to fall


An example on 'awshak(a) in the complete sense:


Verb - Subject

أَوْشَكَ أَنْ نَصِلَ

'awshak(a) 'an nasil(a)

= approached that (we) arrive

Translation: we are about to arrive


Example with a hiding subject:


Verb - Hiding Subject - Verb

كَاْدَ يَنْجَحُ

kaad(a) yanjah(u)

= approached (he) succeed

Translation: he almost succeeded

or: he is about to succeed



Verb - Hiding Subject - Verb

يَكَاْدُ يَنْجَحُ

kaad(a) yanjah(u)

= approaches (he) succeed

Translation: he almost succeeded

or: he is about to succeed




Verbs of Hope


Verbs of approach أَفْعَاْلُ الَّرَجَاْءِ are verbs that denote the hope for the predicate to happen. They mean something like "it is hoped that" or "hopefully."

The verbs in black are obsolete.

Verbs of Hope

 أَفْعَاْلُ الرَّجَاْءِ












*Note that the manageability here concerns only the incomplete senses of these verbs.



Verb - Subject - Infinitival Phrase

عَسَىْ رَبُّكُمْ أَنْ يَرْحَمَكُمْ

"asaa rabbu-kum 'an yarhama-kum

= it is hoped (the) lord (of) you that (he) will have mercy on you

= it is hoped that (the) Lord (of) you will have mercy on you

Translation: may your Lord (God) pardon you


Example on "asaa in the complete sense:


Verb - Subject - adverb

عَسَىْ أَنْ تَنْجَحَ هَذِهِ الْمَرَّةَ

"asaa 'an tanjah(a) haathih(i) ('a)l-marra(ta)

= it is hoped that (you) succeed this time

Translation: I hope that you succeed this time

Remember that an incomplete "asaa will be completed only with a verb or an infinitival phrase other than the subject (the subject here: 'an tanjah(a)).

Example on "asaa attached to a subject pronoun:


Verb - Attached Subject - Infinitival Phrase

هَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِنْ نَاْدَيْتُكُمْ أَنْ تُجِيْبُوْنِيْ ؟

hal "asaytum 'in naadaytu-kum 'an tujeeboo-nee

= is it that it is hoped, you, if (I) called you, that (you) will answer me

= if (I) called you, is it that it is hoped that you will answer me

Translation: if I called upon you, will you, hopefully, answer me?

This is a rather classical kind of sentence.


A special phenomenon of the verb "asaa is that it can be combined to attached object pronouns in a manner resembling to that of the verb-like particles. In fact, in this particular case the verb "asaa will become a verb-like particle and will not follow the rules of the verbs of hope any more.

The Verb عَسَىْ as a Verb-Like Particle

 It is hoped for me



 It is hoped for you (masc. sing.)



 It is hoped for you (fem. sing.)



 It is hoped for him



 It is hoped for her



 It is hoped for you (dual)



 It is hoped for them (dual)



 It is hoped for us



 It is hoped for you (masc. plu.)



 It is hoped for you (fem. plu.)



 It is hoped for them (masc. plu.)



 It is hoped for them (fem. plu.)





V.L.Particle - Object - Predicate

عَسَاْهُ يَفُوْزُ

"asaa-h(u) yafooz(u)

= it is hoped for him (he) will win

Translation: I hope he wins



V.L.Particle - Object - Predicate

عَسَاْهُمْ هُنَاْكَ

"asaa-hum hunaak(a)

= it is hoped for them (be) there

Translation: I hope they are there



V.L.Particle - Object - Predicate

مَاْ عَسَاْنَاْ نَفْعَلُ ؟

maa "asaa-naa naf"al(u)

= what it is hoped for us (we) do

Translation: what could we do?

This is a familiar usage of the word.




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