Praise & Disparagement
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Writing of Letter 'alif (continued)
Choosing Between the Forms at the Middle of the Word
All the different forms of hamza(t) at the middle and the end of words are pronounced the same way, which is a glottal stop. There is not any real reason for why the figures change so much. This is just one of the awkward aspects of Arabic.
Choosing between the different forms depend on the vowels before and after the hamza(t). To understand how the suitable form of hamza(t) is chosen, a simple principle must be introduced first, which is the "relative strength of different vowels."
The following figure demonstrates the relative strength of vowels. The vowels are arranged from the left to right respectively to their relative strength.
Short I is stronger than Short U. This one is stronger than Short A, and this is stronger than the stillness.
The stronger vowel before or after the hamza(t) will indicate its shape.
A well (fem.)
Short I is stronger than stillness. Therefore, the hamza(t) will be in the form that suits the short I : . ـئـ
Stillness can never precede and follow a consonant at the same time (because still letters don't follow each others without separation), so there is not a form that suits that case.
(sing. focus is fem.)
≈ (He/it) was asked
An ax (fem.)
The three long vowels in Arabic (aa, oo, ee) are not really discrete vowels; rather each one of these is composed of a short vowel (a, u, i) followed by the corresponding still consonants ( ' , w, y).
By understanding this, or more simply by just keeping in mind that the weak litters that denote long vowels are always still (i.e. not followed by any short vowel), we can apply the same aforementioned rules to transcribe the hamza(t) that is followed or preceded by a long vowel.
A question (masc.)
persistent (masc. adjective)
A president (masc.)
(The) quietness (of) them
= their quietness (masc.)
By (the) quietness (of) them
= by their quietness (masc.)
(The) water (of) us
= our water (masc.)
(The) dress (of) me
= my dress (masc.)
If the hamza(t) was preceded by a long vowel I (ee), it will take only the form ـئـno matter what vowel was following it.
An environment (fem.)
Note that in this case the hamza(t) should have been written ـأ because the Short A is the dominating "move" or short vowel. However, since that the hamza(t) is preceded by a long I (ee), the hamza(t) must be rendered in the formـئـ .
Bold (plu. masc. adj.)
If the hamza(t) was preceded by a long vowel A (aa) or a long vowel U (oo) and followed by a short A (a), it will take the form ءinstead of ـأ .
A reading (fem.)
A magnanimity (fem.)