Praise & Disparagement
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(For definitions of irregular noun types, you may click here)
Shortened nouns are nouns that end with a shortened 'alif ـا / ـى .
These nouns will always take the -an tanween تَنْوِيْنُ الْفَتْحِ and in all cases. When adding the tanween to a shortened noun, it will be placed on the litter preceding the final shortened 'alif not on the 'alif itself.
a lad (masc.)
*The word "estimated" means to Arabic grammarians "assumed" or "supposed."
Extended nouns are nouns that end with a long vowel 'alif aa ـا that is followed by a consonant 'alif ء (hamza(t)).
Extended nouns will take tanween just like regular nouns, except that when we add the -an tanween we will not add an extended 'alif after it in writing. However, the pronunciation rules remain the same of those of the regular singular nouns.
a water (masc.)
*There is no distinction in Arabic when it comes to countable and uncountable singular nouns. They are all singular nouns.
Defective nouns are nouns that end with a long vowel -ee ـِيْ which belongs to the root.
When adding tanween to a defective noun, the final -ee must be deleted in both writing and pronunciation, except in the nasb (accusative) case. The added tanween will be always -in تَنْوِيْنُ الْكَسْرِ except in, also, the nasb case.
a judge (masc.)
When to Use Noonation?
Tanween must be added to every indefinite noun الْنَّكِرَةُ . The only definite nouns that will take tanween are first names of people and some rare names of places, rivers etc.
The ن of the dual and muscular plural nouns will be always there except in one condition: when the noun is the first part of a genitive construction. In this case the noon will be deleted just like any tanween.
There is a category of irregular nouns that is called the "forbidden to noonation" الْمَمْنُوْعُ مِنَ الْصَّرْفِ. These nouns will not take tanween even if they were indefinite.
Most of names of places and rivers, etc. are forbidden to noonation. Any proper name of non-Arabic origin that have more than three letters is forbidden to noonation. Proper names of unknown Arabic origins include most of the names of towns and geographical features even in Arabia itself. This is why we said that noonation usually happens only with first names of people but not with other proper names (in general), because most of those are forbidden to noonation. Of course, first names have to be of a known Arabic origin too in order to be noonated.
Can you transform the following nouns from the nominative definite state into the nominative indefinite state?
Can you transform the following indefinite nouns from the genitive into the accusative case?