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ARABIC ONLINE

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• Welcome!

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• Irregular Verbs

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• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

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• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

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Verbs

Imperfective Structures

 

Conjugation of Irregular Verbs (continued)

 

For description of irregular verb types, you may go here

3) Hollow Verbs

Hollow verbs are verbs whose second original letter is a weak letter.

Unlike the perfective hollow verbs, imperfective hollow verbs will not always transform the middle weak letter (the w or y) into a weak 'alif. As was explained before, this transformation happens only when the short vowel preceding the weak letter is a short A. Whereas this is always the case in the perfective, in the imperfective this vowel is changeable and thus the weak letter will not be always transformed into a weak A.

 

►Form I

Form I hollow verbs have a displaced-back short vowel in the imperfective. This vowel is the changeable green short of the imperfective verbs. Thus, these verbs will have a changeable middle long vowel depending on the green vowel of the verb.

Example:

قَاْلَ

qaal(a)

 

(He) said

The root is ق و ل Q W L

By applying the root to the imperfective formula of form I, we get:

(He) says

yaqwul(u)

يَقْوُلُ

 

As we said when we defined the hollow verbs in this page, the combination -CCvC becomes -CvCC in the hollow and doubled verbs. So form I imperfective verbs belong to the second type of those verbs, in which the short vowel following the weak letter will be displaced back rather than omitted. This is different from the perfective form I hollow and doubled verbs which are ones with an omitted short vowel.

 

So the verb will become:

 

(He) says

yaquwl(u)

= yaqool(u)

يَقُوْلُ

The verb has a long U vowel in the middle, corresponding to the green vowel u.

The full conjugation:

 

 المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

قَاْلَ : فَـعَـلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) say

'aquwl(u)

أَقُوْلُ

(You masc.) say

taquwl(u)

تَقُوْلُ

(You fem.) say

taquwleen(a)

تَقُوْلِيْنَ

(He) says

yaquwl(u)

يَقُوْلُ

(She) says

taquwl(u)

تَقُوْلُ

D

U

A

L

(You) say

taquwlaan(i)

تَقُوْلانِ

(They masc.) say

yaquwlaan(i)

يَقُوْلانِ

(They fem.) say

taquwlaan(i)

تَقُوْلانِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) say

naquwl(u)

نَقُوْلُ

(You masc.) say

taquwloon(a)

تَقُوْلُوْنَ

(You fem.) say

taquln(a)

تَقُلْنَ

(They masc.) say

yaquwloon(a)

يَقُوْلُوْنَ

(They fem.) say

yaquln(a)

يَقُلْنَ

 

Notice that the middle long vowel (uw = oo) becomes the corresponding short vowel (u) in the feminine plural conjugations. This will happen with all the imperfective hollow verbs when are in these conjugations.

 

Another example:

بَاْعَ

baa"(a)

 

(He) sold

The root isB Y " ب ي ع

By applying the root to the imperfective formula of form I, we get:

(He) sells

yabyi"(u)

يَبْيِعُ

 

By displacing the i backward, we get:

(He) sells

yabiy"(u)

= yabee"(u)

يَبِيْعُ

The verb has a long I vowel in the middle, corresponding to the green vowel i.

Full conjugation:

 

المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

بَاْعَ : فَـعَـلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) sell

'abiy"(u)

أَبِيْعُ

(You masc.) sell

tabiy"(u)

تَبِيْعُ

(You fem.) sell

tabiy"een(a)

تَبِيْعِيْنَ

(He) sells

yabiy"(u)

يَبِيْعُ

(She) sells

tabiy"(u)

تَبِيْعُ

D

U

A

L

(You) sell

tabiy"aan(i)

تَبِيْعَاْنِ

(They masc.) sell

yabiy"aan(i)

يَبِيْعَاْنِ

(They fem.) sell

tabiy"aan(i)

تَبِيْعَاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) sell

nabiy"(u)

نَبِيْعُ

(You masc.) sell

tabiy"oon(a)

تَبِيْعُوْنَ

(You fem.) sell

tabi"n(a)

تَبِعْنَ

(They masc.) sell

yabiy"oon(a)

يَبِيْعُوْنَ

(They fem.) sell

yabi"n(a)

يَبِعْنَ

The middle long vowel (iy = ee) becomes the corresponding short vowel (i) in the feminine plural conjugations.

Now we will take an a verb:

خَاْفَ

khaaf(a)

 

(He) feared

The root isKH W F خ و ف

By applying the root to the imperfective formula of form I, we get:

(He) fears

yakhwaf(u)

يَخْوَفُ

By displacing the a backward, we get:

(He) fears

yakhawf(u)

يَخَوْفُ

 

We mentioned before the rule of aw  aa , ay  aa. By applying this rule here, we get:

 

(He) fears

yakhaaf(u)

يَخَاْفُ

 

So whether the original weak letter is w or y, we will always get a long A (aa) in the middle of an a imperfective hollow verb.

The full conjugation:

 

 المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

خَاْفَ : فَـعَـلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) fear

'akhaaf(u)

أَخَاْفُ

(You masc.) fear

takhaaf(u)

تَخَاْفُ

(You fem.) fear

takhaafeen(a)

تَخَاْفِيْنَ

(He) fears

yakhaaf(u)

يَخَاْفُ

(She) fears

takhaaf(u)

تَخَاْفُ

D

U

A

L

(You) fear

takhaafaan(i)

تَخَاْفَاْنِ

(They masc.) fear

yakhaafaan(i)

يَخَاْفَاْنِ

(They fem.) fear

takhaafaan(i)

تَخَاْفَاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) fear

nakhaaf(u)

نَخَاْفُ

(You masc.) fear

takhaafoon(a)

تَخَاْفُوْنَ

(You fem.) fear

takhafn(a)

تَخَفْنَ

(They masc.) fear

yakhaafoon(a)

يَخَاْفُوْنَ

(They fem.) fear

yakhafn(a)

يَخَفْنَ

 

The middle long vowel (aa) becomes the corresponding short vowel (a) in the feminine plural conjugations.

Imperfective hollow verbs whose middle weak letter is w are always verbs u or a verbs, but not i verbs. Imperfective hollow verbs whose middle weak letter is y are always verbs i or a verbs, but not u verbs.

 

Hollow Verb Conjugation

(Form I)

Original Form

Actual Form

yafwul(u)

yafuwl(u)

yafyul(u)

does not exist

yafyil(u)

yafiyl(u)

yafwil(u)

does not exist

yafwal(u)

yafaal(u)

yafyal(u)

 

Fawal(a) yafuwl(u)

دَاْخَ

خَاْنَ

جَاْلَ

ثَاْرَ

تَاْقَ

تَاْبَ

رَاْحَ

ذَاْقَ

ذَاْبَ

دَاْمَ

دَاْسَ

دَاْرَ

سَاْقَ

سَاْدَ

سَاْءَ

زَاْلَ

زَاْرَ

رَاْمَ

غَاْرَ

عَاْدَ

طَاْلَ

طَاْفَ

صَاْنَ

صَاْمَ

قَاْدَ

فَاْقَ

فَاْزَ

فَاْرَ

فَاْتَ

غَاْصَ

مَاْتَ

لامَ

لاذَ

لاحَ

قَاْمَ

قَاْلَ

 

 

 

هَاْنَ

نَاْحَ

نَاْبَ

 

Fayal(a) yafiyl(u)

زَاْنَ

ذَاْعَ

جَاْءَ

تَاْهَ

بَاْتَ

شَاْخَ

شَاْبَ

سَاْلَ

سَاْرَ

سَاْحَ

ضَاْعَ

صَاْرَ

صَاْدَ

صَاْحَ

شَاْعَ

عَاْشَ

عَاْبَ

طَاْرَ

طَاْبَ

ضَاْقَ

 

هَاْجَ

مَاْلَ

مَاْعَ

غَاْبَ

 

Fa"il(a) yafaal(u)

yanaam(u)

يَنَاْمُ

naam(a)

نَاْمَ

(he) sleeps

(he) slept

yakhaaf(u)

يَخَاْفُ

khaaf(a)

خَاْفَ

(he) fears

(he) feared

yashaa'(u)

يَشَاْءُ

naal(a)

شَاْءَ

(he) wants

(he) wanted

yanaal(u)

يَنْاَلُ

naal(a)

نَاْلَ

(he) gets

(he) got

yahaab(u)

يَهَاْبُ

haab(a)

هَاْبَ

(he) becomes awed

(he) was/became awed

yaraar(u)

يَغَاْرُ

raar(a)

غَاْرَ

(he) becomes jealous

(he) was/became jealous

yakhaal(u)

يَخْاَلُ

khaal(a)

خَاْلَ

(he) thinks (object) to be

takes two object

(he) thought (object) to be

takes two object

yakaad(u)

يَكَاْدُ

kaad(a)

كَاْدَ

(he) is about to (do)

verb of approach

(he) almost (did)

verb of approach

 

Now let us conjugate the rest of the verb forms. The verb forms other than form I that can be hollow verbs are forms IV, VII, VIII & X. To conjugate those, one will need to keep in mind the differentiation between the forms with an omitted short vowel (-CvCvC → -CvCC) and the forms with a displaced-back short vowel (-CCvC → -CvCC).

 

Conjugation of Hollow Verbs

Perfective

Imperfective

Forms I, VII, VIII

omitted short vowel

Forms VII, VIII

omitted short vowel

Forms IV, X

displaced-back short vowel

Forms I, IV, X

displaced-back short vowel

 

 

 

Forms VII & VIII

Example,

اِنْقَاْدَ

'inqaad(a)

(he) was/became led

The root isQ W D ق و د

By applying the root to the imperfective formula of form VII, we get:

(He) becomes led

yanqawid(u)

يَنْقَوِدُ

By omitting the i, we get:

(He) becomes led

yanqawd(u)

يَنْقَوْدُ

 

By applying the rule of aw  aa, we get the final form:

 

(He) becomes led

yanqaad(u)

يَنْقَاْدُ

The same would be true for ay  aa. Thus, these verbs will always have a middle long A instead of the weak letter and the green vowel following it. The same process will be applied to form VIII hollow verbs.

The full conjugation:

 

 المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

اِنْقَاْدَ : اِنْفَعَلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) become led

'anqaad(u)

أَنْقَاْدُ

(You masc.) become led

tanqaad(u)

تَنْقَاْدُ

(You fem.) become led

tanqaadeen(a)

تَنْقَاْدِيْنَ

(He) becomes led

yanqaad(u)

يَنْقَاْدُ

(She) becomes led

tanqaad(u)

تَنْقَاْدُ

D

U

A

L

(You masc.) become led

tanqaadaan(i)

تَنْقَاْدَاْنِ

(They masc.) become led

yanqaadaan(i)

يَنْقَاْدَاْنِ

(They fem.) become led

tanqaadaan(i)

تَنْقَاْدَاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) become led

nanqaad(u)

نَنْقَاْدُ

(You masc.) become led

tanqaadoon(a)

تَنْقَاْدُوْنَ

(You fem.) become led

tanqadn(a)

تَنْقَدْنَ

(They masc.) become led

yanqaadoon(a)

يَنْقَاْدُوْنَ

(They fem.) become led

yanqadn(a)

يَنْقَدْنَ

As it is always, the middle long vowel (aa) becomes the corresponding short vowel (a) in the feminine plural conjugations.

 

Forms IV & X

Example,

أَرَاْدَ

 

'araad(a)

(he) wanted

The root is :  ر و د R W DI

By applying the root to the imperfective formula of form IV, we get:

(He) wants

yurwid(u)

يُرْوِدُ

By displacing the a backward, we get:

(He) wants

yuriwd(u)

يُرِوْدُ

Knowing that iw becomes iy in hollow verbs, we get the final from:

(He) wants

yuriyd(u)

يُرِيْدُ

Thus, these verbs will always have a middle long I in their middles. The same is true for form X hollow verbs.

The full conjugation:

 

 المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

أَرَاْدَ : أَفْعَلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) want

'uriyd(u)

أُرِيْدُ

(You masc.) want

turiyd(u)

تُرِيْدُ

(You fem.) want

turiydeen(a)

تُرِيْدِيْنَ

(He) wants

yuriyd(u)

يُرِيْدُ

(She) wants

turiyd(u)

تُرِيْدُ

D

U

A

L

(You) want

turiydaan(i)

تُرِيْدَاْنِ

(They masc.) want

yariydaan(i)

يُرِيْدَاْنِ

(They fem.) want

turiydaan(i)

تُرِيْدَاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) want

nuriyd(u)

نُرِيْدُ

(You masc.) want

turiydoon(a)

تُرِيْدُوْنَ

(You fem.) want

turidn(a)

تُرِدْنَ

(They masc.) want

yuriydoon(a)

يُرِيْدُوْنَ

(They fem.) want

yuridn(a)

يُرِدْنَ

 

Conjugation of Hollow Verbs

All conjugations except the plural feminine

Plural feminine conjugations

Middle long vowel

Middle short vowel

-fool-

-ful-

-feel-

-fil-

-faal-

-fal-

 

Conjugation of Hollow Verbs

Form I

-f"ul-

-fool-

-f"il-

-feel-

-f"al-

-faal-

Form VII

-faal-

Form VIII

Form IV

-feel-

Form X

 

Extra Note: Modern vs. Classical Arabic

"Classical Arabic" refers to the dialects of Arabic that were spoken from about the 6th to the 9th century. Modern formal or standard Arabic is a modernized form of Arabic that is primarily derived from classical western Arabian Arabic; it began during the Arab renaissance era in the 19th century and was called then اللُّغَةُ الْعَرَبِيَّةُ الْفُصْحَىْ = "the most eloquent Arabic language."

Classical Arabic is much more diverse and rich in vocabulary than modern Arabic. One example of this appears in verb conjugation.

For the example, the verb:

مَاْتَ

maat(a)

(He) died

RootM W T م و ت

This is an u verb in Modern Arabic. The imperfective is:

يَمُوْتُ

yamuwt(u)

(He) dies

 

However, in Classical Arabic, this same verb could also be an i or a verb, so it had three variant forms:

"(He) dies"

Classical Arabic

Modern Standard Arabic

yamuwt(u)

yamuwt(u)

yamiyt(u)

yamaat(u)

 

 

4) Defective Verbs

Defective verbs are verbs whose last original letter is a weak letter.

Defective imperfective verbs can end with ى or with apparent ي y or و w. They cannot end with ا as there is no imperfective verb with less than four letters.

Imperfective defective verbs are similar to the perfective ones in that the vowel preceding the final weak letter will determine its form. The general rule is similar to that of the imperfective hollow verbs:

  • If the final original weak letter (the w or y) is preceded by an u , the ending of the verb will be -uw (the corresponding long vowel).

  • If the final original weak letter is preceded by an i , the ending of the verb will be -iy.

  • If the final original weak letter is preceded by an a, it will be changed to a weak A, and the ending of the verb will be -aa.

 

 

Because form I defective verbs can have u, i or a before the final weak letter, they can end with -uw, -iy or -aa, respectively. The rest of the forms can be classified as follows:

 

  • Yu-i Verbs (forms II, III, IV, & QI): always have i, so always end with -iy.

  • Ya-a Verbs (forms V, VI & QII): always have a, so always end with -aa.

  • Ya-i Verbs (the rest of the forms): always have i, so always end with -iy.

 

 

I. Verbs Ending With -iy / -uw

 

►Form I

Example, perfective:

نَمَاْ

namaa

(He) grew (intr.)

The root is:  ن م وN M W I

By applying the root to the imperfective formula of form I, we get:

(He) grows

yanmuw(u)

يَنْمُوُ

Since the green vowel is u, the ending of the verb will be -uw .

The final -u (the mood-sign) will be deleted because a long vowel cannot be followed by any vowel:

(He) grows

yanmuw

يَنْمُوْ

 

The mood-sign is said to be "estimated" مُقَدَّرَةٌ in this case, which means it is "imagined" to be there but it is not apparent.

For the rest of the conjugations, the only irregularity is that the final long vowel will be deleted in the 2nd person feminine singular and the masculine plural conjugations.

 

 

 المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

نَمَاْ : فَـعَـلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) grow

'anmuw

أَنْمُوْ

(You masc.) grow

tanmuw

تَنْمُوْ

(You fem.) grow

tanmeen(a)

تَنْمِيْنَ

(He) grows

yanmuw

يَنْمُوْ

(She) grows

tanmuw

تَنْمُوْ

D

U

A

L

(You) grow

tanmuwaan(i)

تَنْمُوَاْنِ

(They masc.) grow

yanmuwaan(i)

يَنْمُوَاْنِ

(They fem.) grow

tanmuwaan(i)

تَنْمُوَاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) grow

nanmuw

نَنْمُوْ

(You masc.) grow

tanmoon(a)

تَنْمُوْنَ

(You fem.) grow

tanmuwn(a)

تَنْمُوْنَ

(They masc.) grow

yanmoon(a)

يَنْمُوْنَ

(They fem.) grow

yanmuwn(a)

يَنْمُوْنَ

 

 

Another example:

بَكَىْ

bakaa

(He) cried

The root is:  ب ك يB K Y I

By applying the root to the imperfective formula of form I, we get:

(He) cries

yabkiy(u)

يَبْكِيُ

Since the green vowel is i, the ending of the verb will be -iy.

The final -u will be deleted because a long vowel cannot be followed by any vowel:

(He) cries

yabkiy

يَبْكِيْ

 

The case-sign is said to be "estimated" مُقَدَّرَةٌ in this case, which means it is imagined to be there but not apparent.

 

For the rest of the conjugations, the only irregularity is that the final long vowel will be deleted in the 2nd person feminine singular and the masculine plural conjugations.

 

 المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

بَكَىْ : فَـعَـلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) cry

'abkiy

أَبْكِيْ

(You masc.) cry

tabkiy

تَبْكِيْ

(You fem.) cry

tabkeen(a)

تَبْكِيْنَ

(He) cries

yabkiy

يَبْكِيْ

(She) cries

tabkiy

تَنْمُوْ

D

U

A

L

(You) cry

tabkiyaan(i)

تَبْكِيَاْنِ

(They masc.) cry

yabkiyaan(i)

يَبْكِيَاْنِ

(They fem.) cry

tabkiyaan(i)

تَبْكِيَاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) cry

nabkiy

نَبْكِيْ

(You masc.) cry

tabkoon(a)

تَبْكُوْنَ

(You fem.) cry

tabkiyn(a)

تَبْكِيْنَ

(They masc.) cry

yabkoon(a)

يَبْكُوْنَ

(They fem.) cry

yabkiyn(a)

يَبْكِيْنَ

 

 

Try conjugating the following u verb:

 

سَمَاْ

samaa

(He) rose solemnly

 

 

 

المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

سَمَاْ : فَعَلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) rise

'asmuw

أَسْمُوْ

(You masc.) rise

tasmuw

تَسْمُوْ

(You fem.) rise

tasmeen(a)

تَسْمِيْنَ

(He) rises

yasmuw

يَسْمُوْ

(She) rises

tasmuw

تَسْمُوْ

D

U

A

L

(You) rise

tasmuwaan(i)

تَسْمُوَاْنِ

(They masc.) rise

yasmuwaan(i)

يَسْمُوَاْنِ

(They fem.) rise

tasmuwaan(i)

تَسْمُوَاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) rise

nasmuw

نَسْمُوْ

(You masc.) rise

tasmoon(a)

تَسْمُوْنَ

(You fem.) rise

tasmuwn(a)

تَسْمُوْنَ

(They masc.) rise

yasmoon(a)

يَسْمُوْنَ

(They fem.) rise

yasmuwn(a)

يَسْمُوْنَ

 

 

Form I perfective verbs ending with -aa that is transformed from -aw (ـَاْ ) often end with -uw in the imperfective, and sometimes -aa (ـَىْ ). Verbs whose endings in the perfective are -aa that are transformed from -ay (ـَىْ ) often end with -iy in the imperfective, and sometimes -aa (ـَىْ ). Note that in words with more than three letters, a final weak A will be always transcribed as (ـَىْ ).

 

 

 

►Forms Other Than Form I

 

Imperfective defective verbs of forms other than form I will all end with -iy except forms V, VI & QII which will end with -aa. There are no forms that can end with -uw other than form I.

 

Example, form VIII perfective:

 اِنْتَهَىْ 

 'intahaa

(He) ended, finished

The root is:  ن هـ يN H Y I

By applying the root to the imperfective formula of form VIII, we get:

(He) finishes

yantahiy(u)

يَنْتَهِيُ

The final -u is deleted because a long vowel cannot be followed by any vowel:

(He) finishes

yantahiy

يَنْتَهِيْ

 

For the rest of the conjugations, the only irregularity is that the final long vowel will be deleted in the 2nd person feminine singular and the masculine plural conjugations.

 

 المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

اِنْتَهَىْ : اِفْتَعَلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) finish

'antahiy

أَنْتَهِيْ

(You masc.) finish

tantahiy

تَنْتَهِيْ

(You fem.) finish

tantaheen(a)

تَنْتَهِِيْنَ

(He) finishes

yantahiy

يَنْتَهِيْ

(She) finishes

tantahiy

تَنْتَهِيْ

D

U

A

L

(You) finish

tantahiyaan(i)

تَنْتَهِيَاْنِ

(They masc.) finish

yantahiyaan(i)

يَنْتَهِيَاْنِ

(They fem.) finish

tantahiyaan(i)

تَنْتَهِيَاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) finish

nantahiy

نَنْتَهِيْ

(You masc.) finish

tantahoon(a)

تَنْتَهُوْنَ

(You fem.) finish

tantahiyn(a)

تَنْتَهِيْنَ

(They masc.) finish

yantahoon(a)

يَنْتَهُوْنَ

(They fem.) finish

yantahiyn(a)

يَنْتَهِيْنَ

The conjugation process of form VIII defective verbs is the same for all the verb forms except forms V, VI & QII which end with -aa.

 

II. Verbs Ending With -aa

Those can only be forms V, VI or QII, in addition to form I verbs that have a after the second root-letter. They end only with ى but not ا as there is no imperfective verb with less than four letters. In the dual and feminine plural conjugations, the ى will be always transformed to y regardless of its true origin.

 

►Form I

 

Example:

 نَسِيَ

nasiy(a)

 

(He) forgot

The root is :  ن س يN S Y I

By applying the root to the imperfective formula of form I, we get:

(He) forgets

yansay(u)

يَنْسَيُ

Since the green vowel is a, the weak letter y will become a weak A, and the final -u will be deleted because a long vowel cannot be followed by any vowel:

(He) forgets

yansaa

يَنْسَىْ

 

For the 2nd person feminine singular conjugation, the final weak A will be deleted, but the short a before the deleted weak A will be preserved, thus making the resultant suffix -ayn(a) rather than -iyn(a).

(He) forgets

yansaa

يَنْسَىْ

(Thou fem.) forgets

tansaaiyn(a)

تَنْسَىِيْنَ

(Thou fem.) forgets

tansayn(a)

تَنْسَيْنَ

 

For the masculine plural conjugations, the final weak A will be deleted, but the short a before it will not, thus making the resultant suffix -awn(a) rather than -uwn(a).

(He) forgets

yansaa

يَنْسَىْ

(They masc.) forget

yansaauwn(a)

يَنْسَاُوْنَ

(They masc.) forget

yansawn(a)

يَنْسَوْنَ

 

For the dual and feminine plural conjugations, the final weak A will be transformed to y when adding the suffixes.

(He) forgets

yansaa

يَنْسَىْ

(They two) forget

yansaaaan(i)

يَنْسَاَاْنِ

(They two) forget

yansayaan(i)

يَنْسَيَاْنِ

 

(He) forgets

yansaa

يَنْسَىْ

(They fem.) forget

yansaan(a)

يَنْسَاْنَ

(They fem.) forget

yansayn(a)

يَنْسَيْنَ

 

The full conjugation:

 

 المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

نَسِيَ : فَعِلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) forget

'ansaa

أَنْسَىْ

(You masc.) forget

tansaa

تَنْسَىْ

(You fem.) forget

tansayn(a)

تنْسَيْنَ

(He) forgets

yansaa

يَنْسَىْ

(She) forgets

tansaa

تَنْسَىْ

D

U

A

L

(You) forget

tansayaan(i)

تَنْسَيَاْنِ

(They masc.) forget

yansayaan(i)

يَنْسَيَاْنِ

(They fem.) forget

tansayaan(i)

تَنْسَيَاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) forget

nansaa

نَنْسَىْ

(You masc.) forget

tansawn(a)

تَنْسَوْنَ

(You fem.) forget

tansayn(a)

تَنْسَيْنَ

(They masc.) forget

yansawn(a)

يَنْسَوْنَ

(They fem.) forget

yansayn(a)

يَنْسَيْنَ

 

 

Form I perfective verbs ending with -iy(a) often end with -aa (ـَىْ ) in the imperfective. Verbs whose endings are -uw(a) in the perfective are very rare and end with -uw in the imperfective.

 

 

 

►Forms Other Than Form I

 

Example, form V perfective:

 تَمَنَّىْ

tamannaa

 

(He) wished

The root is :  م ن يM N Y I

By applying the root to the imperfective formula of form V, we get:

(He) wishes

yatamannay(u)

يَتَمَنَّيُ

 

Since the green vowel is a, the weak letter y will become a weak A, and the final -u will be deleted because a long vowel cannot be followed by any vowel:

 

(He) wishes

yatamannaa

يَتَمَنَّىْ

 

The rest of conjugations are like those explained above for form I ending with -aa.

 

 المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

تَمَنَّىْ : تَفَعَّلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) wish

'atamannaa

أَتَمَنَّىْ

(You masc.) wish

tatamannaa

تََتَمَنَّىْ

(You fem.) wish

tatamannayn(a)

تَتَمَنَّيْنَ

(He) wishes

yatamannaa

يَتَمَنَّىْ

(She) wishes

tatamannaa

تََتَمَنَّىْ

D

U

A

L

(You) wish

tatamannayaan(i)

تََتَمَنَّيَاْنِ

(They masc.) wish

yatamannayaan(i)

يَتَمَنَّيَاْنِ

(They fem.) wish

tatamannayaan(i)

تََتَمَنَّيَاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) wish

natamannaa

نََتَمَنَّىْ

(You masc.) wish

tatamannawn(a)

تََتَمَنَّوْنَ

(You fem.) wish

tatamannayn(a)

تََتَمَنَّيْنَ

(They masc.) wish

yatamannawn(a)

يَتَمَنَّوْنَ

(They fem.) wish

yatamannayn(a)

يَتَمَنَّيْنَ

 

Endings of Imperfective Defective Verbs

(3rd Person Masculine Singular)

Form I

-iw(u)

-iy

ـِيْ

-iy(u)

-uw(u)

-uw

ـُوْ

-uy(u)

-aw(u)

-aa

ـَىْ

-ay(u)

Forms V, VI & QII

-aa

ـَىْ

Remaining Forms

-iy

ـِيْ

 

Conjugation of Imperfective Defective Verbs

3rd person masculine singular

Dual and feminine plural

2nd person feminine singular

Masculine plural

-iy(u)

-iy-suffix

----iyn(a)

----uwn(a)

-uw(u)

-uw-suffix

----iyn(a)

----uwn(a)

-aa

-ay-suffix

----ayn(a)

----awn(a)

 

Fa"aa yaf"uw

شَكَاْ

بَدَاْ

دَنَاْ

تَلا

نَمَاْ

عَدَاْ

رَجَاْ

صَفَاْ

عَلا

رَنَاْ

 

 

غَلا

طَفَاْ

سَلا

 

Fa"aa yaf"iy

بَكَىْ

سَقَىْ

مَضَىْ

رَمَىْ

مَشَىْ

عَنَىْ

مَرَىْ

فَلَىْ

حَمَىْ

غَلَىْ

هَوَىْ

لَوَىْ

كَوَىْ

عَوَىْ

رَوَىْ

 

Fa"aa yaf"aa

نَحَاْ

رَأَىْ

طَغَىْ

رَعَىْ

سَعَىْ

 

 

IV. Enfolding Verbs

Enfolding verbs are two types:

  • Verbs that have a middle and final weak original letters C-C-C

  • Verbs that have a first and final weak original letters C-C-C

The first type enfolds the definitions of both hollow and defective verbs, yet it is always treated as a defective verb only, and the middle weak letter is treated as if it were a sound letter.

Example:

أَوَىْ

'awaa

(He) took refuge (in), stayed (at)

The root is :  ' W Y Iأ و ي

This is an i verb.

 

 المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

أَوَىْ : فَعَلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) take refuge

'a'<wiy 'aawiy

آوِيْ*

(You masc.) take refuge

ta'<wiy

تََأْوِيْ

(You fem.) take refuge

ta'<wiyn(a)

تََأْوِيْنَ

(He) takes refugees

ya'<wiy

يَأْوِيْ

(She) takes refugees

ta'<wiy

تََأْوِيْ

D

U

A

L

(You) take refuge

ta'<wiyaan(i)

تََأْوِيَاْنِ

(They masc.) take refuge

ya'<wiyaan(i)

يَأْوِيَاْنِ

(They fem.) take refuge

ta'<wiyaan(i)

تََأْوِيَاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) take refuge

na'<wiy

نَأْوِيْ

(You masc.) take refuge

ta'<wuwn(a)

تَأْوُوْنَ

(You fem.) take refuge

ta'<wiyn(a)

تََأْوِيْنَ

(They masc.) take refuge

ya'<wuwn(a)

يَأْوُوْنَ

(They fem.) take refuge

ya'<wiyn(a)

يَأْوِيْنَ

 

*The transition 'a'< 'aa is a general rule of Arabic and not related to the verb being an irregular verb. This transition was mentioned on this page.

 

Enfolding verbs of the first type that end with -aa in the perfective will end with -iy in the imperfective; the ones that end with -iy(a) in the perfective will end with -aa in the imperfective.

The second type of the enfolding verbs enfolds the definitions of both Mithaal and defective verbs. These verbs get the dealing of both Mithaal and defective verbs together.

Example:

وَعَىْ

wa"aa

(He) understood, comprehended

The root is :  و ع يW " Y I

This is an i verb.

 

 المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

أَوَىْ : فَعَلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) understand

'a"iy

أَعِي

(You masc.) understand

ta"iy

تََعِيْ

(You fem.) understand

ta"iyn(a)

تََعِيْنَ

(He) understands

ya"iy

يَعِيْ

(She) understands

ta"iy

تََعِيْ

D

U

A

L

(You) understand

ta"iyaan(i)

تَعِيَاْنِ

(They masc.) understand

ya"iyaan(i)

يَعِيَاْنِ

(They fem.) understand

ta"iyaan(i)

تََعِيَاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) understand

na"iy

نَعِيْ

(You masc.) understand

ta"uwn(a)

تَعُوْنَ

(You fem.) understand

ta"iyn(a)

تََعِيْنَ

(They masc.) understand

ya"uwn(a)

يَعُوْنَ

(They fem.) understand

ya"iyn(a)

يَعِيْنَ

 

 

Enfolding Verbs

Root: C-C-C

Treat as defective verbs

Root: C-C-C

Treat as Mithaal & defective verbs

Where C is a sound consonant, and C is a weak consonant.

 

 

Exercise

 

(He) extended (tr.)

مَدَّ

(He) extended (intr.)

اِمْتَدَّ

(He) continued

اِسْتَمَرَّ

(He) despaired

 (a verb)

يَئِسَ

(He) stood, stopped

 (i verb)

وَقَفَ

(He) fell

 (a verb)

وَقَعَ

(He) woke up (tr.)

أَيْقَظَ

(He) won

 (u verb)

فَاْزَ

(He) walked, strolled

 (i verb)

سَاْرَ

(He) slept

 (a verb)

نَاْمَ

(He) chose

اِخْتَاْرَ

(He) resigned, left a job/duty

اِسْتَقَاْلَ

(He) remained, stayed

(a verb)

بَقِيَ

(He) ascended

(u verb)

عَلا

(He) bought

اِشْتَرَىْ

(He) transgressed

تَعَدَّىْ

(He) fell

(i verb)

هَوَىْ

(He) protected

 (i verb)

وَقَىْ

 

Based on these verbs, can you translate the following to Arabic?

(you need not to translate the pronouns in parenthesis)

 

(You masc. sing.) extend (tr.)

(They fem. plu.) extend (tr.)

(You fem. sing.) extend (intr.)

(You fem. plu.) extend (intr.)

(We) continue

(They fem. plu.) continue

(I) despair

(I) stand

(she) falls

(You dual) wake up (tr.)

(She) wins

(You fem. sing.) walk

(You masc. sing.) sleep

(They masc. plu.) choose

(They fem. plu.) choose

(They fem. plu.) resign

(They masc. plu.) resign

(I) remain

(You fem. sing) remain

(You fem. plu) remain

(We) ascend

(You fem. sing.) ascend

(They fem. dual) ascend

(You masc. sing.) buy

(They masc. plu.) buy

(You dual) buy

(She) transgresses

(They fem. plu)  transgress

(They masc. plu.) transgress

(You fem. sing.) fall

(They fem. plu.) fall

(I) protect

(They masc. dual) protect

(They masc. plu.) protect

(They fem. plu.) protect

 

Answers

 

(You masc. sing.) extend (tr.)

تَمُدُّ

(They fem. plu.) extend (tr.)

يَمْدُدْنَ

(You fem. sing.) extend (intr.)

تَمْتَدِّيْنَ

(You fem. plu.) extend (intr.)

تَمْتَدِدْنَ

(We) continue

نَسْتَمِرُّ

(They fem. plu.) continue

يَسْتَمْرِرْنَ

(I) despair

أَيْأَسُ

(I) stand

أَقِفُ

(she) falls

تَقَعُ

(You dual) wake up (tr.)

تُوْقِظَاْنِ

(She) wins

تَفُوْزُ

(You fem. sing.) walk

تَسِيْرِيْنَ

(You masc. sing.) sleep

تَنَاْمُ

(They masc. plu.) choose

يَخْتَاْرُوْنَ

(They fem. plu.) choose

يَخْتَرْنَ

(They fem. plu.) resign

يَسْتَقِلْنَ

(They masc. plu.) resign

يَسْتَقِيْلُوْنَ

(I) remain

أَبْقَىْ

(You fem. sing) remain

تَبْقَيْنَ

(You fem. plu) remain

تَبْقَيْنَ

(We) ascend

نَعْلُوْ

(You fem. sing.) ascend

تَعْلِيْنَ

(They fem. dual) ascend

تَعْلُوَاْنِ

(You masc. sing.) buy

تَشْتَرِيْ

(They masc. plu.) buy

يَشْتَرُوْنَ

(You dual) buy

تَشْتَرِيَاْنِ

(She) transgresses

تَتَعَدَّىْ

(They fem. plu)  transgress

يَتَعَدَّيْنَ

(They masc. plu.) transgress

يَتَعَدَّوْنَ

(You fem. sing.) fall

تَهْوِيْنَ

(They fem. plu.) fall

يَهْوِيْنَ

(I) protect

أَقِيْ

(They masc. dual) protect

يَقِيَاْنِ

(They masc. plu.) protect

يَقُوْنَ

(They fem. plu.) protect

يَقِيْنَ

 

 

 

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