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Verbs

Imperfective Structures

Forms II Through QIV (continued)

 

Ya-i Verbs

Represented by form VII in the three introductory examples, these verbs have the prefix ya- and the green vowel i in the active voice (and like all imperfective verbs, the prefix yu- and the green vowel a in the passive voice).

Ya-i verbs are the majority of the verb forms. They can be identified by elimination: any verb form that is neither quadriliteral (composed of four letters) nor begins with a reflexive prefix ta- will be a Ya-i verb. The Ya-i verbs are namely the forms VII through XV and forms QIII & QIV .

Ya-i Verb Forms

 

Imperfective

(Active-Indicative)

Perfective

(Active)

Form VII

يَنْفَعِلُ

اِنْفَعَلَ

yanfa"il(u)

'infa"al(a)

Form VIII

يَفْتَعِلُ

اِفْتَعَلَ

yafta"il(u)

'ifta"al(a)

Form IX

يَفْعَلُّ*

اِفْعَلََّ

yaf"all(u)

'if"all(a)

Form X

يَسْتَفْعِلُ

اِسْتَفْعَلَ

yastaf"il(u)

'istaf"al(a)

Form XI

يَفْعَاْلُّ*

اِفْعَاْلَّ

yaf"aall(u)

'if"aall(a)

Form XII

يَفْعَوْعِلُ

اِفْعَوْعَلَ

yaf"aw"il(u)

'if"aw"al(a)

Form XIII

يَفْعَوِّلُ

اِفْعَوَّلَ

yaf"awwil(u)

'if"awwal(a)

Form XIV

يَفْعَنْلِلُ

اِفْعَنْلَلَ

yaf"anlil(u)

'if"anlal(a)

Form XV

يَفْعَنْلِيْ*

اِفْعَنْلَىْ

yaf"anliy

'if"anlaa

Form QIII

يَفْعَنْلِلُ

اِفْعَنْلَلَ

yaf"anlil(u)

'if"anlal(a)

Form QIV

يَفْعَلِلُّ*

اِفْعَلَلَّ

yaf"alill(u)

'if"alall(a)

*These are irregular doubled verb. The green vowel is hidden in forms IX & XI and displaced backward in form QIV. The original structures of these forms will be restored only in the feminine plural conjugations.

*This verb always conjugates as a defective verb. The final weak A will be transformed to y in the imperfective.

Examples on conjugation:

Form VIII

اِنْزَعَجَ

'inza"aj(a)

(He) was/became annoyed

 

 

المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

اِنْزَعَجَ : اِنْفَعَلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) become annoyed

'anza"ij(u)

أَنْزَعِجُ

(You masc.) become annoyed

tanza"ij(u)

تَنْزَعِجُ

(You fem.) become annoyed

tanza"ijeen(a)

تنْزَعِجِيْنَ

(He) becomes annoyed

yanza"ij(u)

يَنْزَعِجُ

(She) becomes annoyed

tanza"ij(u)

تَنْزَعِجُ

D

U

A

L

(You) become annoyed

tanza"ijaan(i)

تَنْزَعِجَاْنِ

(They masc.) become annoyed

yanza"ijaan(i)

يَنْزَعِجَاْنِ

(They fem.) become annoyed

tanza"ijaan(i)

تَنْزَعِجَاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) become annoyed

nanza"ij(u)

نَنْزَعِجُ

(You masc.) become annoyed

tanza"ijoon(a)

تَنْزَعِجُوْنَ

(You fem.) become annoyed

tanza"ijn(a)

تَنْزَعِجْنَ

(They masc.) become annoyed

yanza"ijoon(a)

يَنْزَعِجُوْنَ

(They fem.) become annoyed

yanza"ijn(a)

يَنْزَعِجْنَ

 

Form VIII

اِنْتَظَرَ

'intzar(a)

 

(He) waited (tr.)

 

 

 

المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

اِنْتَظَرَ :  اِفْتَعَلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) wait

'antazir(u)

أَنْتَظِرُ

(You masc.) wait

tantazir(u)

تَنْتَظِرُ

(You fem.) wait

tantazireen(a)

تَنْتَظِرِيْنَ

(He) waits

yantazir(u)

يَنْتَظِرُ

(She) waits

tantazir(u)

تَنْتَظِرُ

D

U

A

L

(You) wait

tantaziraan(i)

تَنْتَظِرَاْنِ

(They masc.) wait

yantaziraan(i)

يَنْتَظِرَاْنِ

(They fem.) wait

tantaziraan(i)

تَنْتَظِرَاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) wait

nantazir(u)

نَنْتَظِرُ

(You masc.) wait

tantaziroon(a)

تَنْتَظِرُوْنَ

(You fem.) wait

tantazirn(a)

تَنْتَظِرْنَ

(They masc.) wait

yantaziroon(a)

يَنْتَظِرُوْنَ

(They fem.) wait

yantazirn(a)

يَنْتَظِرْنَ

 

 

 

Try conjugating the following verb:

 

اِنْتَصَرَ

'intasar(a)

 

(He) won

 

 

 

 

المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

اِنْتَصَرَ :  اِفْتَعَلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) win

'antasir(u)

أَنْتَصِرُ

(You masc.) win

tantasir(u)

تَنْتَصِرُ

(You fem.) win

tantasireen(a)

تَنْتَصِرِيْنَ

(He) wins

yantasir(u)

يَنْتَصِرُ

(She) wins

tantasir(u)

تَنْتَصِرُ

D

U

A

L

(You) win

tantasiraan(i)

تَنْتَصِرَاْنِ

(They masc.) win

yantasiraan(i)

يَنْتَصِرَاْنِ

(They fem.) win

tantasiraan(i)

تَنْتَصِرَاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) win

nantasir(u)

نَنْتَصِرُ

(You masc.) win

tantasiroon(a)

تَنْتَصِرُوْنَ

(You fem.) win

tantasirn(a)

تَنْتَصِرْنَ

(They masc.) win

yantasiroon(a)

يَنْتَصِرُوْنَ

(They fem.) win

yantasirn(a)

يَنْتَصِرْنَ

 

 

The forms that denote color or bodily defect state of the subject (IX & XI) are doubled verbs. They will conjugate regularly except in the feminine plural conjugations where they will need the insertion of an i (the hidden green vowel) between the two doubled letters of the stem.

Form IX

اِخْضَرَّ

'ikhdarr(a)

 

(He) greened (up)

 

 

 المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

اِخْضَرَّ : اِفْعَلَّ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) green

'akhdarr(u)

أَخْضَرُّ

(You masc.) green

takhdarr(u)

تَخْضَرُّ

(You fem.) green

takhdarreen(a)

تَخْضَرِّيْنَ

(He) greens

yakhdarr(u)

يَخْضَرُّ

(She) greens

takhdarr(u)

تَخْضَرُّ

D

U

A

L

(You) green

takhdarraan(i)

تَخْضَرَّاْنِ

(They masc.) green

yakhdarraan(i)

يَخْضَرَّاْنِ

(They fem.) green

takhdarraan(i)

تَخْضَرَّاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) green

nakhdarr(u)

نَخْضَرُّ

(You masc.) green

takhdarroon(a)

تَخْضَرُّوْنَ

(You fem.) green

takhdarirn(a)

تَخْضَرِرْنَ

(They masc.) green

yakhdarroon(a)

يَخْضَرُّوْنَ

(They fem.) green

yakhdarirn(a)

يَخْضَرِرْنَ

 

 

Form XI

اِحْمَاْرَّ

'ihmaarr(a)

 

(He) reddened (up) (much)

 

 

 المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

اِحْمَاْرَّ : اِفْعَاْلَّ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) green

'ahmaarr(u)

أَحْمَاْرُّ

(You masc.) green

tahmaarr(u)

تَحْمَاْرُّ

(You fem.) green

tahmaarreen(a)

تَحْمَاْرِّيْنَ

(He) greens

yahmaarr(u)

يَحْمَاْرُّ

(She) greens

tahmaarr(u)

تَحْمَاْرُّ

D

U

A

L

(You) green

tahmaarraan(i)

تَحْمَاْرَّاْنِ

(They masc.) green

yahmaarraan(i)

يَحْمَاْرَّاْنِ

(They fem.) green

tahmaarraan(i)

تَحْمَاْرَّاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) green

nahmaarr(u)

نَحْمَاْرُّ

(You masc.) green

tahmaarroon(a)

تَحْمَاْرُّوْنَ

(You fem.) green

tahmaarirn(a)

تَحْمَاْرِرْنَ

(They masc.) green

yahmaarroon(a)

يَحْمَاْرُّوْنَ

(They fem.) green

yahmaarirn(a)

يَحْمَاْرِرْنَ

 

Form X

اِسْتَعْمَلَ

'ista"mal(a)

 

(He) used

 

 

المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

اِسْتَعْمَلَ : اِسْتَفْعَلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) use

'asta"mil(u)

أَسْتَعْمِلُ

(You masc.) use

tasta"mil(u)

تَسْتَعْمِلُ

(You fem.) use

tasta"mileen(a)

تَسْتَعْمِليْنَ

(He) uses

yasta"mil(u)

يَسْتَعْمِلُ

(She) uses

tasta"mil(u)

تَسْتَعْمِلُ

D

U

A

L

(You) use

tasta"milaan(i)

تَسْتَعْمِلانِ

(They masc.) use

yasta"milaan(i)

يَسْتَعْمِلانِ

(They fem.) use

tasta"milaan(i)

تَسْتَعْمِلانِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) use

nasta"mil(u)

نَسْتَعْمِلُ

(You masc.) use

tasta"miloon(a)

تَسْتَعْمِلوْنَ

(You fem.) use

tasta"miln(a)

تَسْتَعْمِلْنَ

(They masc.) use

yasta"miloon(a)

يَسْتَعْمِلُوْنَ

(They fem.) use

yasta"miln(a)

يَسْتَعْمِلْنَ

 

Form QIV is also a doubled verbs like forms IX & XI; however, the green short vowel here is not hidden but is rather displaced backward. In the feminine plural conjugations, the original form of QIV verbs ('if"allal(a)) must be restored before conjugation; or, in another way of saying it, the green short vowel must be restored to its original place in the feminine plural conjugations.

 

Form QIV

اِطْمَأَنَّ

'itma'ann(a)

 

(He) was/became reassured

 

 

 المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

اِطْمَأَنَّ : اِفْعَلَلَّ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) become reassured

'atma'inn(u)

أَطْمَئِنُّ

(You masc.) become reassured

tatma'inn(u)

تَطْمَئِنُّ

(You fem.) become reassured

tatma'inneen(a)

تَطْمَئِنِّيْنَ

(He) becomes reassured

yatma'inn(u)

يَطْمَئِنُّ

(She) becomes reassured

tatma'inn(u)

تَطْمَئِنُّ

D

U

A

L

(You) become reassured

tatma'innaan(i)

تَطْمَئِنّانِ

(They masc.) become reassured

yatma'innaan(i)

يَطْمَئِنّانِ

(They fem.) become reassured

tatma'innaan(i)

تَطْمَئِنّانِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) become reassured

natma'inn(u)

نَطْمَئِنّ

(You masc.) become reassured

tatma'innoon(a)

تَطْمَئِنّوْنَ

(You fem.) become reassured

tatma'<ninn(a)

تَطْمَئْنِنَّ

(They masc.) become reassured

yatma'innoon(a)

يَطْمَئِنُّونَ

(They fem.) become reassured

yatma'<ninn(a)

يَطْمَئْنِنَّ

 

 

Imperfective Conjugation

Yu-i Verbs Forms II, III, IV, & QI four forms with four letters
Ya-a Verbs Forms V, VI & QII prefix ta-
Ya-i Verbs Forms VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, QIII & QIV Everything else

 

Imperfective Conjugation

Ya-a

Active voice of forms I, V, VI & QII

Ya-i

Active voice of forms I, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, QIII & QIV

Ya-u

Active voice of form I

Yu-i

Active voice of forms II, III, IV, & QI

Yu-a

Passive voice of all forms

 

 

Arabic Verbs

 

Imperfective

(Active-Indicative)

Perfective

(Active)

Form I

يَفْعلُ

فَعلَ

yaf"?l(u)

fa"?l(a)

Form II

يُفَعِّلُ

فَعَّلَ

yufa''"il(u)

fa''"al(a)

Form III

يُفَاْعِلُ

فَاْعَلَ

yufaa"il(u)

faa"al(a)

Form IV

يُفْعِلُ

أَفْعَلَ

yuf"il(u)

'af"al(a)

Form V

يَتَفَعَّلُ

تَفَعَّلَ

yatafa''"al(u)

tafa''"al(a)

Form VI

يَتَفَاْعَلُ

تَفَاْعَلَ

yatafaa"al(u)

tafaa"al(a)

Form VII

يَنْفَعِلُ

اِنْفَعَلَ

yanfa"il(u)

'infa"al(a)

Form VIII

يَفْتَعِلُ

اِفْتَعَلَ

yafta"il(u)

'ifta"al(a)

Form IX

يَفْعَلُّ

اِفْعَلََّ

yaf"all(u)

'if"all(a)

Form X

يَسْتَفْعِلُ

اِسْتَفْعَلَ

yastaf"il(u)

'istaf"al(a)

Form XI

يَفْعَاْلُّ

اِفْعَاْلَّ

yaf"aall(u)

'if"aall(a)

Form XII

يَفْعَوْعِلُ

اِفْعَوْعَلَ

yaf"aw"il(u)

'if"aw"al(a)

Form XIII

يَفْعَوِّلُ

اِفْعَوَّلَ

yaf"awwil(u)

'if"awwal(a)

Form XIV

يَفْعَنْلِلُ

اِفْعَنْلَلَ

yaf"anlil(u)

'if"anlal(a)

Form XV

يَفْعَنْلِيْ

اِفْعَنْلَىْ

yaf"anliy

'if"anlaa

Form QII

يَتَفَعْلَلُ

تَفَعْلَلَ

yatafa"lal(u)

tafa"lal(a)

Form QI

يُفَعْلِلُ

فَعْلَلَ

yufa"lil(u)

fa"lal(a)

Form QIII

يَفْعَنْلِلُ

اِفْعَنْلَلَ

yaf"anlil(u)

'if"anlal(a)

Form QIV

يَفْعَلِلُّ

اِفْعَلَلَّ

yaf"alill(u)

'if"alall(a)

 

 

Present vs. Future Tense

The imperfective verb on its own can express both the present and future tenses. However, in order to disambiguate between the two tenses, especially in sentences not containing time expressions such as tomorrow, later, etc., Arabic uses the following word before the imperfective when it is meant as a future tense verb:

sawf(a) سَوْفَ

 

Future Tense

Present/Future Tense

سَوْفَ يَفْعَلُ

يَفْعَلُ

sawf(a) yaf"al(u)

yaf"al(u)

(He) will do

(He) will be doing

(He) does

(He) is doing

(He) will do

(He) will be doing

 

This word is similar to the English "will," although it will not necessarily always carry the connotation of prediction or spontaneity as in English.

Sawf(a) can often be reduced to sa- ; this happens most of the time in modern standard Arabic.

sa-

سَـ

 

Future Tense

Present/Future Tense

سَيَفْعَلُ

يَفْعَلُ

sa-yaf"al(u)

yaf"al(u)

(He) will do

(He) will be doing

(He) does

(He) is doing

(He) will do

(He) will be doing

 

More details will be available in the tense section.

 

Examples:

Future

Present/Future

Past

سَوْفَ يَذْهَبُ

sawfa yathhab(u)

(he) will go

 

يَذْهَبُ

yathhab(u)

(he) goes

(he) will go

ذَهَبَ

thahab(a)

(he) went

سَيَذْهَبُ

sa-yathhab(u) 

(he) will go 

سَوْفَ تَأْتِيْ

sawfa ta'<tee

(you 1/m) will come

تَأْتِيْ

ta'<tee

(you 1/m) come

(you 1/m) will come

أَتَيْتَ

'atayt(a)

(you 1/m) came

سَتَأْتِيْ

sa-ta'<tee

(you 1/m) will come

سَوْفَ أَقُوْلُ

sawfa 'aqool(u)

(I) will say

أَقُوْلُ

'aqool(u)

(I) say

(I) will say

قُلْتُ

qult(u)

(I) said

سَأَقُوْلُ

sa-'aqool(u)

(I) will say

سَوْفَ تَسْمَعِيْنَ

sawfa tasma"een(a)

(you 1/f) will hear

تَسْمَعِيْنَ

tasma"een(a)

(you 1/f) hear

(you 1/f) will hear

سَمِعْتِ

sami"ti

(you 1/f) heard

سَتَسْمَعِيْنَ

sa-tasma"een(a)

(you 1/f) will hear 

سَوْفَ نَعْرِفُ

sawfa na"rif(u)

(we) will know

نَعْرِفُ

na"rif(u)

(we) know

(we) will know

عَرَفْنَاْ

"arafnaa

(we) knew

سَنَعْرِفُ

sa-na"rif(u)

(we) will know

سَوْفَ تَقْرَؤُوْنَ

sawfa taqra'oon(a) 

(you >2/m) will read

تَقْرَؤُوْنَ

taqra'oon(a)

(you >2/m) read

(you >2/m) will read

قَرَأْتُمْ

qara'<tum

(you >2/m) read

سَتَقْرَؤُوْنَ

sa-taqra'oon(a)

(you >2/m) will read 

سَوْفَ يَكْتُبْنَ

sawfa yaktubn(a)

 

(they >2/m) will write

يَكْتُبْنَ

yaktubn(a)

(they >2/m) write

(they >2/m) will write

كَتَبْنَ

katabn(a)

(they >2/m) wrote

سَيَكْتُبْنَ

sa-yaktubn(a)

 

(they >2/m) will write

سَوْفَ يَتَكَلَّمَاْنِ

sawfa yatakallamaan(i) 

(they 2/m) will speak 

يَتَكَلَّمَاْنِ

yatakallamaan(i)

(they 2/m) speak

(they 2/m) will speak

تَكَلَّمَاْ

takallamaa

(they 2/m) spoke

سَيَتَكَلَّمَاْنِ

sa-yatakallamaan(i)

(they 2/m) will speak 

سَوْفَ تَرَيْنَ

sawfa tarayn(a)

(you >2/f) will see 

تَرَيْنَ

tarayn(a)

(you >2/f) see

(you >2/f) will see

رَأَيْتُنَّ

ra'aytunn(a)

(you >2/f) saw

سَتَرَيْنَ

sa-tarayn(a)

(you >2/f) will see

سَوْفَ تُحَاْوِلانِ

sawfa tuhaawilaan(i)

(they 2/f) will try

تُحَاْوِلانِ

tuhaawilaan(i)

(they 2/f) try

(they 2/f) will try

حاوَلَتَاْ

haawalataa

(they 2/f) tried

سَتُحَاْوِلانِ

sa-tuhaawilaan(i)

(they 2/f) will try 

سَوْفَ نُسَاْفِرُ

sawfa nusaafir(u)

(we) will travel 

نُسَاْفِرُ

nusaafir(u)

(we) travel

(we) will travel

سافَرْنَاْ

saafarnaa

(we) traveled

سَنُسَافِْرُ

sa-nusaafir(u)

(we) will travel

سَوْفَ يَصِلُ

sawfa yasil(u)

(he) will arrive

يَصِلُ

yasil(u)

(he) arrives

(he) will arrive

وَصَلَ

wasal(a)

(he) arrived

سَيَصِلُ

sa-yasil(u)

(he) will arrive 

سَوْفَ تُغَاْدِرُ

sawfa turaadir(u)

(she) will leave

تُغَاْدِرُ

turaadir

(she) leaves

(she) will leave

غَادَرَتْ

raadarat

(she) left (intr.)

سَتُغَاْدِرُ

sa-turaadir(u)

(she) will leave 

سَوْفَ تَرْكَبَاْنِ

sawfa tarkabaan(i)

(you 2/m) will ride 

تَرْكَبَاْنِ

tarkabaan(i)

(you 2/m) ride

(you 2/m) will ride

رَكِبْتُمَاْ

rakibtumaa

(you 2/m) rode

سَتَرْكَبَاْنِ

sa-tarkabaan(i)

(you 2/m) will ride

 

 

Exercise 1

Can you fill in the missing English pronouns inside the brackets?

 

(?) hurry (up)

تسْرعُوْنَ

(?) win

ينْتَصرْنَ

(?) cooperate

تتَعَاْونُ

(?) try

نجَرّبُ

(?) try, attempt

يحَاْولانِ

(?) blue (become blue)

تزْرَققْنَ

(?) fidget

تتَمَلْملُوْنَ

(?) blow up

تفَجّرَاْنِ

(?) make, force (to do)

أجْبرُ

(?) speak

تتَكَلَمِيْنَ

(?) use

أسْتَخْدمُ

(?) become lame

يعْرَاْججْنَ

(?) commit (do wrong)

نرْتَكبُ

(?) reiterate

تكَرّرِيْنَ

(?) mutter

يتَمْتمَاْنِ

(?) send

يرْسلُوْنَ

(?) roughen

تخْشَوْشنُ

 

 

Answers

 

 

(You masc. plu.) hurry (up)

تسْرعُوْنَ

(They fem. plu.) win

ينْتَصرْنَ

(You masc. sing.) cooperate

(She) cooperates

تتَعَاْونُ

(We) try

نجَرّبُ

(They masc. dual) try, attempt

يحَاْولانِ

(You fem. plu.) blue (become blue)

تزْرَققْنَ

(You masc. plu.) fidget

تتَمَلْملُوْنَ

(You dual) blow up

(They fem. dual) blow up

تفَجّرَاْنِ

(I) make, force (to do)

أجْبرُ

(You fem. sing.) speak

تتَكَلَمِيْنَ

(I) use

أسْتَخْدمُ

(They fem. plu.) become lame

يعْرَاْججْنَ

(We) commit (do wrong)

نرْتَكبُ

(You fem. sing.) reiterate

تكَرّرِيْنَ

(They masc. dual) mutter

يتَمْتمَاْنِ

(They masc. plu.) send

يرْسلُوْنَ

(You masc. sing.) roughen

(She) roughens

تخْشَوْشنُ

 

 

Exercise 2

Can you tell the missing vowel-marks in the Arabic words of the previous example?

 

 

Answers

 

Form IV

تُسْرِعُوْنَ

Form VIII

يَنْتَصِرْنَ

Form VI

تَتَعَاْوَنُ

Form II

نُجَرِّبُ

Form III

يُحَاْوِلانِ

Form IX

تَزْرَقِقْنَ

Form QII

تَتَمَلْمَلُوْنَ

Form II

تُفَجِّرَاْنِ

Form VI

أُجْبِرُ

Form V

تَتَكَلَّمِيْنَ

Form X

أَسْتَخْدِمُ

Form XI

يَعْرَاْجِجْنَ

Form VIII

نَرْتَكِبُ

Form II

تُكَرِّرِيْنَ

Form QI

يُتَمْتِمَاْنِ

Form IV

يُرْسِلُوْنَ

Form XII

تَخْشَوْشِنُ

 

 

 

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