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  Arabic Online

ARABIC ONLINE

        اللّغة العربيّة    

Arabic Online

 

• Welcome!

• Varieties of Arabic

• Alphabet

• Pronunciation
• Words
• Vowels
• Reading out

• Syllables

• Stress

• Rules of Pause

• Writing of Letter 'alif

• Roots

• Sibawayh's phonology

• Historical phonology

• Nouns

• Irregular Nouns

• Declension

• Noun Gender

• Feminine Markers

• Singular Nouns

• Dual Nouns

• Plural Nouns EDITED

• Masculine Plural Nouns EDITED

• Feminine Plural Nouns

• Irregular Plural Nouns
• Articles

• Case Inflection

• Case Endings

• The Six Nouns

• Noonation

• Adjectives

• Genitive Construction

• Am/Is/Are Sentences

• Verbs

• Irregular Verbs

• Verb Forms

• Perfective Verbs

• Perfective Conjugation

• Irregular Perfective Conjugation

• Imperfective Verbs

• Imperfective Conjugation

• Irregular Imperfective Conjugation

• Moods

• Subjunctive Mood

• Jussive Mood

• Mood Signs

• Energetic Mood

• Imperative Mood

• Passive Voice

• Passive Perfective Verbs

• Passive Imperfective Verbs

• Passive of Irregular Verbs

• Subject Pronouns

• Object Pronouns

• Demonstratives

• Relative Pronouns

• Sentences

• To Have

• Incomplete Verbs

• Frozen Verbs

• Verb-Like Particles

• Negation

• Present Negative

• Past Negative

• Future Negative

• Negation+Exclusion Style

• Interrogation

• Yes/No Questions

• Interrogative Pronouns

• Polite Request

• Introductory Particles

• Infinitival/Indefinite maa

• Prepositions

• Conjunctions

• Adverbs

• Inactive Particles

• Ablative Particles

• Vocative Particles

• Exclamatory Style

• Praise & Disparagement

• Derived Nouns

• Verbal Nouns

• Active Participles

• Passive Participles

• Participle-like Adjectives

• Comparatives

• Place-nouns

• Time-nouns

• Tool-nouns

• Attributives

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• Vocabulary

• Dialects

• Survival Phrases

 

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Writing of Letter 'alif (continued)

Consonant 'alif

Choosing Between the Forms at the Middle of the Word

All the different forms of hamza(t) at the middle and the end of words are pronounced the same way, which is a glottal stop. There is not any real reason for why the figures change so much. This is just one of the awkward aspects of Arabic.

Choosing between the different forms depend on the vowels before and after the hamza(t). To understand how the suitable form of hamza(t) is chosen, a simple principle must be introduced first, which is the "relative strength of different vowels."

The following figure demonstrates the relative strength of vowels. The vowels are arranged from the left to right respectively to their relative strength.

Strongest

 

 

Weakest

Short I

Short U

Short A

No Vowel (Stillness)

الْكَسْرَةُ

الضَّمَّةُ

الْفَتْحَةُ

السُّكُوْنُ

Short I is stronger than Short U. This one is stronger than Short A, and this is stronger than the stillness.

The stronger vowel before or after the hamza(t) will indicate its shape.

Example:

بِئْرٌ

A well (fem.)

Succeeding Vowel The hamza(t) Preceding Vowel
Stillness ـئـ Short I

Short I is stronger than stillness. Therefore, the hamza(t) will be in the form that suits the short I :  . ـئـ

Suitable Form

Stronger Vowel

ـئـ Short I
ـؤ Short U
ـأ / ء Short A

 

Stillness can never precede and follow a consonant at the same time (because still letters don't follow each others without separation), so there is not a form that suits that case.

More examples:

بُؤَرٌ

Foci

(sing. focus is fem.)

Succeeding Vowel

The hamza(t)

Preceding Vowel

Short A

ـؤ

Short U

 

سُئِلَ

≈ (He/it) was asked

Succeeding Vowel

The hamza(t)

Preceding Vowel

Short I

ـئـ

Short U

 

فَأْسٌ

An ax (fem.)

Succeeding Vowel

The hamza(t)

Preceding Vowel

Stillness

ـأ

Short A

 

سَأَلَ

(He) asked

Succeeding Vowel

The hamza(t)

Preceding Vowel

Short A

ـأ

Short A

 

تَوْأَمٌ

A twin

Succeeding Vowel

The hamza(t)

Preceding Vowel

Short A

ـأ

Stillness

 

 

 

Long Vowels

The three long vowels in Arabic (aa, oo, ee) are not really discrete vowels; rather each one of these is composed of a short vowel (a, u, i) followed by the corresponding still consonants ( ' , w, y).

By understanding this, or more simply by just keeping in mind that the weak litters that denote long vowels are always still (i.e. not followed by any short vowel), we can apply the same aforementioned rules to transcribe the hamza(t) that is followed or preceded by a long vowel.

Examples:

سُؤَاْلٌ

A question (masc.)

Succeeding Vowel

The hamza(t)

Preceding Vowel

Short A

ـؤ

Short U

 

دَؤُوْبٌ

persistent (masc. adjective)

Succeeding Vowel

The hamza(t)

Preceding Vowel

Short U

ـؤ

Short A

 

رَئِيْسٌ

A president (masc.)

Succeeding Vowel

The hamza(t)

Preceding Vowel

Short I

ـئـ

Short A

 

هُدُوْؤُهُمْ

(The) quietness (of) them

= their quietness (masc.)

Succeeding Vowel

The hamza(t)

Preceding Vowel

Short U

ـؤ

Stillness

 

بِهُدُوْئِهِمْ

By (the) quietness (of) them

= by their quietness (masc.)

Succeeding Vowel

The hamza(t)

Preceding Vowel

Short I

ـئـ

Stillness

 

 

مَاْؤُنَاْ

(The) water (of) us

= our water (masc.)

Succeeding Vowel

The hamza(t)

Preceding Vowel

Short U

ـؤ

Stillness

 

رِدَاْئِيْ

(The) dress (of) me

= my dress (masc.)

Succeeding Vowel

The hamza(t)

Preceding Vowel

Short I

ـئـ

Stillness

 

 

Special Cases

 

Case One

If the hamza(t) was preceded by a long vowel I (ee), it will take only the form  ـئـno matter what vowel was following it.

Example:

بِيْئَةٌ

An environment (fem.)

Succeeding Vowel

The hamza(t)

Preceding Vowel

Short A

ـئـ

Stillness

Note that in this case the hamza(t) should have been written ـأ because the Short A is the dominating "move" or short vowel. However, since that the hamza(t) is preceded by a long I (ee), the hamza(t) must be rendered in the formـئـ  .

Another example:

جَرِيْئُوْنَ

Bold (plu. masc. adj.)

Succeeding Vowel

The hamza(t)

Preceding Vowel

Short U

ـئـ

Stillness

 

 

Case Two

If the hamza(t) was preceded by a long vowel A (aa) or a long vowel U (oo) and followed by a short A (a), it will take the form  ءinstead of ـأ .

Examples:

قِرَاْءَةٌ

A reading (fem.)

Succeeding Vowel

The hamza(t)

Preceding Vowel

Short A

ء

Stillness

 

مُرُوْءَةٌ

A magnanimity (fem.)

Succeeding Vowel

The hamza(t)

Preceding Vowel

Short A

ء

Stillness

 

 

 

 

 

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